Thursday, October 31, 2019
Introduction to the law of property - Essay Example However, on the facts, none of that exists and the legal title, on BellaÃ¢â¬â¢s death, is transferred to Dominic who is the sole legal owner of 41 Evergreen Terrace. As a result, the only interest Nigel can establish in the land in order to bar Dominic from selling the property and to continue occupying it is necessarily equitable. Dominic is currently the owner at law as well as in equity, owing to the lack of any direct conveyance to another or the declaration of a trust. Nigel, in order to claim an equitable ownership of Evergreen will have to rely on a number of recent authorities that allow a third party to claim an interest in the property of another (Pettitt v Pettitt (1970), Lloyds Bank v Rosset (1989), Stack v Dowden (2007)), and argue a constructive trust in his favor. However, since Nigel contributed to the purchase price, he can argue a resulting trust in his favor as well, according to the principals set in Curley v Parkes. It is apparent from that case that any contribution at the time of acquisition of the property will result in the creation of a purchase money resulting trust in favor of the contributor, entitling him to an equitable ownership in the property (Dyer v Dyer (1788), Laskar v Laskar (2008). However, this law is only operable if the money provided by Nigel was not meant as a gift or loan, which may as well be the case here since it was a father daughter deal. However, the facts are silent on the matter. Moreover, the House of Lords in Stack v Dowden suggested that the resulting trust mechanism to establish an equitable interest in property should be sidelined in favor of constructive trusts, since they can relate to a lot of other factors as well instead of just being concerned with the purchase money, especially in relation to family affairs. Hence, those will be considered below. Nigel has been made a promise to after he moves in by Dominic. The words used are
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Take Back the Night April 17, 2008 Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Take Back the NightÃ¢â¬ was an evening dedicated to taking a stand against sexual violence, primarily on females. The event had many phases including musicals and spoken word performances, such as the Ã¢â¬Å"Denim DayÃ¢â¬ fashion show, Ã¢â¬Å"Walk in Her ShoesÃ¢â¬ contest, and the candlelight vigil. The event started off by introducing the concept of fighting against violence, especially those who were silenced by power. Those who were sexually violated and those who have experienced sexual violence sometime in their lives were also given much attention. Ã¢â¬Å"Take Back the NightÃ¢â¬ was a reclamation of the right to feel and be safe all the time, especially during the evenings. Statistics showed that an average harasser molests eighteen times before being apprehended. This was an information that surprised everyone. During the event, R. E. A. C. H peer educators were present to showcase their talents through playing music, singing, reading poetries, and sharing their feelings and emotions. The denim day fashion show presented the message, Ã¢â¬Å"Break the dress code, break the silence! Ã¢â¬ . It was a success for both the viewers and the organizers. The most important part of the event was the candlelight vigil. This was the time when those present were given the chance to voice out their concerns and emotions, at the same time it was a moment dedicated to silence and remembering the events that happened in the past. The event has given me more insights about sexual violence. I was deeply disheartened to hear their stories and chants about the experiences they had. It is my belief that no one can ever fully understand the difficulties and struggles these victims go through, unless the same sufferings were endured as that of the victims. I can personally say that I do not fully understand the real meaning of sexual abuse, although I, myself have experienced some during my youth. As a sixth grader, a female teacher asked me to show her my body parts because I was not paying much attention during her class. She even threatened me not to tell anyone of the incident, or else she will not be nice to me during class anymore. I was frightened, so I never said a word to anybody. A few weeks after, she came to me again. This time, she commanded me to take my clothes off, and masturbate in front of her. I did not have an idea as to what masturbation was, so she helped me. I felt broken afterwards. I do not know if this was considered as sexual abuse or not, all I knew was that she did that horrible deed unwillingly. The event helped me bridge reality with the lessons taught in class. Women were being treated as sex animals, and these treatments often lead to sexual violence. Professor Chikako Takeshita often invited guests to share some of the techniques that would be beneficial for both male and females against sexual violence. Personally, self-defense was the most beneficial for me, although I also valued the other information given, such as the hotline for both endangered and victims of sexual violence.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Chromatography Lab Report GC-1 (Gas Chromatography) Experiment 1, 2, 3 4 Experiment 1:- Determination of ethanol content of a mouthwash using an internal standard Experiment 2:- Determination of oxygenates in gasoline Experiment 3:- Qualitative and Quantitative analysis of BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene) Experiment 4: Determination of volatile compounds by headspace analysis Anil Kumar Introduction Theory The experiments performed in this lab were based on Gas chromatography specifically gas-liquid chromatography. This technique involves a sample being vapourised and injected onto the head of the chromatographic column. The sample is transported through the column by the flow of inert, gaseous mobile phase. The column itself contains a liquid stationary phase which is adsorbed onto the surface of an inert solid. GC: Schematic diagram (http://teaching.shu.ac.uk/hwb/chemistry/tutorials/chrom/gcdiag.gif ) In Experiment 1: the ethanol content in a mouthwash was determined. This was done by using an internal standard of butanol. Then, solutions of internal standard with unknown solution and ethanol were made and injected into the GC. The areas obtained for each compound were then used to calculate the % alcohol in the sample. In Experiment 2: ethanol content in gasoline mixture was calculated using a standard curve of ethanol made with pure ethanol. The gasoline mixture was extracted with water to extract the ethanol in it for further analysis by GC. The GC method is used industrially to find ethanol content in gasolines, plus oxygenates like butyl ether that can contaminate drinking water.. In Experiment 3: qualitative analysis of BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene) was performed by injecting pure solutions of these compounds in GC. The retention times obtained were recorded for each. In the second part, standard solutions of toluene and xylene were made and calibration curves were made for each. Next, the unknown sample of BTEX was injected to GC. The retention areas obtained were recorded and substituted in equations of standard curves to find the actual content of toluene and xylene in sample. In Experiment 4: the technique of headspace analysis was used to determine the volatile compounds in a contaminated soil sample. The soil sample was also deliberately contaminated with toluene and xylene and placed in a vial for 10 minutes. Then using a syringe, the headspace was sucked and injected to GC for performing a qualitative analysis (the retention times of BTEX from Experiment 3 were used). GC is continuing to be used in a number of fields as an analytical tool due to certain advantages like: Shorter run times Greater sample throughput Cheaper columns Higher signal to noise ratio Lower bleed (thinner films) High resolution power compared to others. Complex mixture can be resolved into its components by this GC method. The separation, determination and identification of many compounds withnegligibledifferences in boilingpoints is possible by this technique. Sensitivity in detection is very high with thermal conductivity detectors. One can detect upto 100 ppm, while flame detectors, electron capture and phosphorus detectors can detect ppm, parts per billion or picograms respectively. (http://www.sge.com/support/training/fast-gc-analysis/advantages-/-disadvantages-of-fast-gc) Some industrial applications of GC include: Identification and quantification of ubiquitous pollutants in the environment: analysis of various classes of persistent organic contaminants in air, water, soils, sediments and biota GC Analysis of Antioxidants Determination of ethanol in gasoline Analysis and quality assessment of alcoholic beverages Ã¢â¬â Quantitative and qualitative assessment of Alcohols in blood Aromatics (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) Flavors and Fragrances Permanent gases (H2, N2, O2, Ar, CO2, CO, CH4) Hydrocarbons Pesticides, Herbicides, PCBs, and Dioxins Solvents (http://www.med.cmu.ac.th/dept/vascular/alcho/research/res_out/Application%20of%20gas%20chromatography.pdf) As we can see, the varied applications of GC in industry and its advantages over other methods, performing of these GC experiments is industrially justified. Experiment 1:- Determination of ethanol content of a mouthwash using an internal standard Procedure The instrument was set to the following parameters: Injector temperature: 200 degree C Detector temperature: 250 degree C Oven temperature: 80 degree C Attenuation: between 4 and 16 Carrier gas pressure: 8-10 psi FID range: 1 Valve: Split 1 on Dilute the unknown ethanol sample and mouthwash provided with water in a 1:10 ratio. 10 ml of each was diluted to 100 ml in volumetric flask. Next, ethanol standard solution and butanol (internal standard) (each2 ml to 100 ml water) were made. Equal volumes of ethanol and internal standard were mixed. And equal volumes of sample solution and internal solution were made (each 5 ml). Now, three injections (0.3 uL each) were made of each of these solutions into the GC. From the chromatographs, the % of alcohol in sample were calculated. Observations, Calculations and Results Instrument: GC SST Instrument settings: Injector temperature: 200 degree C Detector temperature: 250 degree C Oven temperature: 80 degree C Attenuation: between 4 and 16 Carrier gas pressure: 8-10 psi FID range: 1 Valve: Split 1 on Solution Retention time Peak area Butanol 1.400 5452.57 Ethanol 0.700 3607.3 Butanol (I.S.) + Ethanol 1.400-Butanol (I.S) 0.700-Ethanol 2226.7 1341.9 Solution Retention time Peak area Int. Stan +Unknown ethanol sample Int. Stan- 1.383 Unknown ethanol Sample- 0.683 (Ethanol) 2878.8 874.3 Int. Stan + Mouthwash Int. Stan- 1.383 Mouthwash Ã¢â¬â 0.683 (Ethanol) 3373.4 2079.5 Using the formula, Rspl RI.S. = Cspl Rstd Cstd RI.S. where, R=response (peak area); spl=sample, I.S.=internal standard C= Concentration For Unknown ethanol sample, we have, Rspl = 874.3, R I.S= 2878.8, Rstd = 1341.9, R I.S. = 2226.7 Cstd = 2 % (From observation table # 1 2) Putting these values in equation, 874.3 / 2878.8 / 1341.9 / 2226.7 X 2 = Cspl On solving we get, Cspl = 1.00 % For mouthwash, we have, Rspl = 2079.5 , R I.S= 3373.4, Rstd = 1341.9, R I.S. = 2226.7 Cstd = 2 % (From observation table # 1 2) Putting these values in equation, 2079.5 /3373.4 / 1341.9 / 2226.7 X 2 = Cspl On solving we get, Cspl = 0.98 % So, % alcohol in Mouthwash is = 0.98 % in Unknown ethanol sample = 1.00 % Experiment 2:- Determination of oxygenates in gasoline Procedure Develop a set of operating conditions that will satisfactorily separate ethanol from hexane. To do this equal volume of hexane and ethanol in a small vial were combined and injected. Inject this mixture into GC and ensure two resolved peaks. Inject pure hexane to establish its identity. The oven temperature was decreased from 80 degree C to 70 and then to 60 degrees C to separate the two peaks. Prepare ethanol standards: 0.2 ml, 0.5 ml, 1.0 ml and 2.0 ml in 25 ml DI water. Concentration, 0.2 ml = 0.2/25 = 0.008 %, 0.5 ml = 0.5/25 = 0.02 % 1.0 ml = 1.0/25 = 0.04 % 2.0 ml = 2.0/25 = 0.08 % These standards were injected into GC and a calibration curve was prepared using the peak area data obtained. The unknown gasoline sample (Unknown Sample D: Ethanol in hexane) was taken and 5.0 of it was transferred to a vial. 5.0 ml of water was added and mixed thoroughly in the vial. It was allowed to stand for 5 minutes. The water layer was taken using a Pasteur pipette and injected into GC. The % ethanol was determined using calibration curve data and peak area data from step 5. Observations, Calculations and Results Instrument: GC SST Instrument settings: Injector temperature: 200 degree C Detector temperature: 250 degree C Oven temperature: 60 degree C (Earlier 80 degree C and 70 degree C) Attenuation: between 4 and 16 Carrier gas pressure: 8-10 psi FID range: 1 Valve: Split 1 on Solution Oven temperature (in degree C) Retention time Pure Hexane 60 0.500 Hexane + Ethanol 80 Hexane: 0.483 Ethanol: 0.683 (Less resolved peaks) Hexane + Ethanol 70 Hexane: 0.483 Ethanol: 0.750 (Better resolved peaks) Hexane + Ethanol 60 Hexane: 0.500 Ethanol: 0.916 (well resolved peaks) Solution Peak Area Standard 0.008 %, 2186.8 Standard 0.02 % 3509.9 Standard 0.04 % 5296.3 Standard 0.08 % 8746.5 Sample (1st Injection) Sample (2nd Injection) 1982.2 2138.1 Calculating % of ethanol in sample Equation of line from standard curve : y = 89994x + 1605.1 where, y = peak area, x = concentration of ethanol in % From Observation table # 3 we have, Area of sample = 1982.2 and 2138.1 Putting these values in equation in place of y we get, 1982.1 = 89994x + 1605.1 2138.1 = 89994x + 1605.1 On solving for x we get, x = 0.00418 % and x = 0.00592 % Averaging the two values, we get x = 0.00505 % So, the % of ethanol in the given Unknown Ethanol in Hexane Sample D is 0.00505 %. Experiment 3:- Qualitative and Quantitative analysis of BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene) Procedure Part A: Qualitative Analysis Take 1 ml each of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene in separate vials. Run the individual standards and record the retention times. Part B: Quantitative analysis Prepare a series of standard of toluene and para-xylene using hexane as a solvent. Make 2,4,6,8 and 10 % solutions of each of toluene and para-xylene in 50 ml volumetric flasks. For 2 %= 1 ml each of toluene or para-xylene (separate), for 4 % = 2ml For 6 % = 3 ml, for 8 % = 4 ml, and for 10 % = 5 ml to 50 ml with hexane. Prepare a calibration curve based on the peaks area data obtained. Analyse an unknown sample of BTEX provided and find the % of toluene and para-xylene in it using the standard curve data. Observations, Calculations and Results Instrument: GC SST Instrument settings: Injector temperature: 200 degree C Detector temperature: 250 degree C Oven temperature: 80 degree C Attenuation: between 4 and 16 Carrier gas pressure: 8-10 psi FID range: 1 Solution Retention time Chlorobenzene 3.866 Ethylbenzene 2.016 p-xylene 1.400 o-xylene 4.133 Toluene 1.500 From individual injections of hexane, toluene and xylene, it was seen that that the retention times for each of these were 0.500, 0.933 and 1.550 respectively. Solution Peak Area Toluene 2 % 939.8 Toluene 4 % 1254.0 Toluene 6 % 1987.6 Toluene 8 % 2260.2 Toluene 10 % 3210.0 Para-xylene 2 % 455.8 Para-xylene 4 % 985.0 Para-xylene 6 % 1168.1 Para-xylene 8 % 1791.5 Para-xylene 10 % 2222.9 Sample Run 1 Sample Run 2 10500 (Rt = 0.733) 863 (Rt = 1.600) 2966 (Rt = 0.733) 181 (Rt = 1.600) From the sample analysis, we find that the two biggest peaks are seen at Rt = 0.733. This value neither corresponds to value of Rt for toluene (around 0.900) nor xylene (around 1.350). So we cannot identify or quantitate them. The other peak (although small) which is seen occurs at Rt = 1.600 is close to Rt for xylene (Rt for 10 % xylene is 1.600). So this peak would be for xylene. We can find its concentration by making a standard curve for xylene from the data in Observation table # 7. Calculating amount of xylene in sample. From the standard curve (Graph # 2), we have the equation of line y = 217.04x + 22.45 where, y = peak area, x = concentration of ethanol in % From Observation table # 7 we have, Area of sample = 863 and 181 Putting these values in equation in place of y we get, 863 = 217.04x + 22.45 181 = 217.04x + 22.45 On solving for x we get, x = 3.87 % and x = 0.73 % Averaging the two values, we get x = 2.30 % Therefore, the sample (Unknown B) contains 2.30 % of xylene and no toluene. Experiment 4: Determination of volatile compounds by headspace analysis Procedure Soil was taken in a sealed vial and 1-2 drops each of toluene and p-xylene were added to it. Let the sample rest in the vial for about 10 minutes so that the volatile components gather in the headspace of the vial. After 10 minutes, using a syringe, suck out 0.3uL of the headspace keeping in mind that the syringe doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t touch the soil sample itself and headspace sample is taken from just the midway of the vial. Inject this to the GC. Perform duplicate injections if both components can not be seen at one go. Observations, Calculations and Results Instrument: GC SST Instrument settings: Injector temperature: 200 degree C Detector temperature: 250 degree C Oven temperature: 80 degree C Attenuation: between 4 and 16 Carrier gas pressure: 8-10 psi FID range: 1 Sample Retention time Compound present Soil Sample 1 1.033 1.533 Toluene P-Xylene Soil Sample 2 1.050 1.483 Toluene P-Xylene From Observation Table # 7, last experiment, we know retention times of both toluene and p-xylene. They were 0.950 and 1.550. So on comparing these Rts with the Rts obtained in these chromatograms, we can identify the peaks as toluene or xylene as done in Observation Table # 8. So, using headspace analysis, Toluene and p-xylene could be identified in the soil sample. Discussion and Conclusion In this lab, using the technique of Gas Chromatography, four different experiments were performed. In Experiment 1: the ethanol content in a mouthwash was determined. This was done by using an internal standard of butanol. Then, solutions of internal standard with unknown solution and ethanol were made and injected into the GC. The areas obtained for each compound were then used to calculate the % alcohol in the sample. The amount of ethanol present in the unknown solution of ethanol was found to be 1.00 % and the ethanol content in mouthwash was found to be 0.98%. In Experiment 2: ethanol content in gasoline mixture was calculated using a standard curve of ethanol made with pure ethanol (An unknown ethanol in hexane sample was used). The gasoline mixture was extracted with water to extract the ethanol in it for further analysis by GC. The amount of ethanol that was found to be present in this sample was 0.00505%. Firstly, we injected pure hexane and ethanol to find out their retention times and then an equal mixture was injected to see if the two peaks can be resolved or not. After doing this, the experiment was performed. The calculations for determining the % of ethanol were based on equation that was derived from the standard curve from ethanol standards. The value of peak area obtained in the chromatogram for the unknown sample was substituted in the equation from standard curve to find the ethanol concentration. This GC method is even used industrially to find ethanol content in gasolines, plus oxygenates like butyl ether that can contaminate drinking water. In Experiment 3: qualitative analysis of BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene) was performed by injecting pure solutions of these compounds in GC. The retention times obtained were recorded for each. In the second part, quantitative analysis of toluene and p-xylene was done. Standard solutions of toluene and xylene were made and calibration curves were made for each. Next, the unknown sample of BTEX was injected to GC. The retention areas obtained were recorded and substituted in equations of standard curves to find the actual content of toluene and xylene in sample. It was found that the unknown sample had not retention that matched with the retention times of toluene which was close to 0.9550. No peaks were seen at this retention times even on duplicate runs of the sample. So it is concluded that the sample had no toluene in it. Nevertheless, a peak for xylene was seen (determined by comparing the Rt with the Rt of toluene from Experiment 3). A standard curve was made from the data obtained by running xylene standards. Now with the equation of calibration curve and the peak area of sample for xylene, the concentration of xylene present in the sample was calculated. It was found to contain 2.30 % xylene. In Experiment 4: the technique of headspace analysis was used to determine the volatile compounds in a contaminated soil sample. The soil sample was deliberately contaminated with toluene and xylene and placed in a vial for 10 minutes. Then using a syringe, the headspace was sucked and injected to GC for performing a qualitative analysis (the retention times of BTEX from Experiment 3 were used). The peaks for both toluene and xylene could be detected by GC. This conclusion was based on the fact that the peaks had comparable retention times as toluene and xylene. To conclude, we can say that we used GC for quantitative analysis like analysis of BTEX in chemicals, food, etc. or BTEX in soil. And qualitative analysis like determination of ethanol content in gasoline, mouthwash, etc. References Page # 67-73 Chromatography Laboratory Manual, Durham College 2012 Advantages of GC http://www.sge.com/support/training/fast-gc-analysis/advantages-/-disadvantages-of-fast-gc) Industrial applications of GC (http://www.med.cmu.ac.th/dept/vascular/alcho/research/res_out/Application%20of%20gas%20chromatography.pdf)
Friday, October 25, 2019
In Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield goes through many events in just three days that seemed to impact his life a lot. He began to realize things about himself, and changes occurred within him. Now it's 35 years later and Holden has grown up, and has finally entered the real world. Holden now works for a high school as a student counselor, and deals with problems of children everyday. He is very well liked at the school and he has only been there for three years. He sometimes gets attached with the students dilemmas, but that is not necessarily a bad thing. He is also the leader of the schools Students Reaching Out program. Holden has enjoyed his job ever since he has started and has never thought of leaving it. Holden now lives in the small town of Wellingville in California. He is married to a women he met when he went back to college and they have 2 kids, both girls. One is 6 and the other is 3. Holden's wife has all the qualities that Jane did. A very sweet women with a great personality. They made a perfect couple. He has gave his kids financial and emotional support that his own parents never gave him. Cole Cuchna 12/2/99 Per7 He does this because he doesn't want his kids to go through what he did growing up. Holden has made many compromises as he has grew up. Through his daily therapy he realized that he can't be everything he wants to be. He can't save every child he meets from growing up and entering the real world. Every child loses their innocents sometime in their life, and Holden becomes to realize that. As he matures he doesn't try to save them from the real world, but he helps them accept it. This is why Holden is a good counselor for teenagers because teenagers are usually just beginning to enter the real world and Holden can help them through it. Also, as he grew he picked up on a hobby. Everyday after work, Holden goes to the local park and feeds the ducks. Everyday he does this, in the winter time and everything. It gives him time to think about what went on in the day and helps him concentrate on any issues he might be having at the time. As Holden grew up, he matured a lot but he also did retain some of his childhood qualities. One of these such qualities is his constant changing of personalities. He will go from thinking he is crazy, to then thinking he is something else.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Psychologists who study the mental process of thinking, as well as perception, learning, memory and language, work in the area of cognitive psychology. Thinking is probably one of the most difficult processes to describe, as we think in three ways. We think in words and meaning: semantic thought, we think in images by making mental pictures: iconic thought and enactive thought based on impressions of actions, such as tying a shoelace. Our memory provides us with the ability to remember the past and things that we have learnt in the past. On a daily basis we are overloaded with information, so how do we process it? Firstly, we can organise our thoughts by involving and using mental images which helps us memorise better verbal and written information. So, we think about things by making a mental picture in our mind. When starting to learn the a new language, mental images are very helpful to learn the basic vocabulary. A very good example of this is the key word technique. To explain this further, imagine a picture of a bell with a lid on it, which has a nasty smell, the French word is Ã¢â¬Å"La PoubelleÃ¢â¬ , and is pronounced pooh-bell, which means Ã¢â¬Å"binÃ¢â¬ in English. You can then make a mental picture of yourself lifting the lid off of the bell shaped bin and saying Ã¢â¬Å"poohÃ¢â¬ . This key word technique created by Michael Raugh and Richard Atkinson, who experimented on two groups of participants, who were asked to learn a list of 60 Spanish words. The group that used the key word technique, when all participants were tested, scored an average of 88% and the group that did not use these key words scored 28%. This proves that the use of mental images help us remember things, and we can develop different memory stagegies such as mnemonics, which are an aid or verse to remember facts. An example of this is, to aid us when setting up a snooker table with the different coloured balls. Most of us know all the red balls go in the triangle, and the location of the black, pink and blue balls. However, we do forget the order of the green, brown and yellow because they are placed in a row of three next to each other. An easy mnemonic way to remember this order of balls is: God Bless You. Second, another important way we can organise our thoughts is by putting them into categories. This is known as concept formation and is the process of developing mental representation by developing categories of a group of objects or events that share similar properties. For example, the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"animalÃ¢â¬ , this concept contains other sub-concepts and then further sub-concepts. You divide animals into birds, fish and mammals. Then, divide birds into robins, sparrows and owls etc. Using our concepts we can define the features that we associate with birds, such as wings, feathers, beaks, flying.These defining concepts of a bird, do not have to be applied rigidly, as certain birds cannot fly, such as penguins and ostriches. Weston Bousfield conducted an experiment where participants were asked to learn a list of sixty words that could be divided into four categories. Example: furniture, fruit, clothing and flowers. Although the words were presented in a random order, the participants tended to remember them in groups which belonged to the same category,so if they remembered apple, they would remember peach, lemon and strawberry.This shows us that the information was available, but without the category clues given above, we cannot access all of this information. Now, when we try to recall this information that has been arranged in to categories. Each piece of information then cues the next in turn, as it has been stored in our mind in an structured way, as opposed to a random and arbitrary way. Finally, schemas are a vital way to organise our thoughts, as they allow us to remember information about particular things. A schema is mental framework of knowledge developed as a result of experience, that can help us recall information that has been stored, and so provide more cues to prompt our memory. Hence, we file our knowledge about objects, situations, groups of people and ourselves into a large filing cabinet in our mind. The term schema (plural schemas or schemata) that was used by Jean Piaget an influential Swiss psychologist, who spent over 50 years, investigating the way children developed their thinking and cognitive skills, learning and memory.This was done by developing schemas which built up and developed by their result of experience in the world. Simply this means that our memory is a large filing cabinet and each file in the cabinet is a schema. If you opened a schema labelled Ã¢â¬ going to the cinemaÃ¢â¬ it would contain all your knowledge about trips to the cinema. Buying a ticket, seeing a film, sitting in the dark and eating popcorn. So, if you went to a cinema that you had not been to before, you would open up your Ã¢â¬Å"cinema schemaÃ¢â¬ file in your memory and this would lead the way. John Bransford and Marcia Johnson conducted an experiment, which illustrated the role of schemas.They asked participants to read a passage from a book and recall it as accurately as they could. Half the participants were given the title of the passage and the other half without the title of Ã¢â¬Å"washing clothesÃ¢â¬ .The title provides a schema, so that the information can be set aside and remembered more easily. In conclusion, we have explored the ways that we think and the ways that organising our thoughts our can improve our memory. So, mental images give us pictures, concept formation puts information into groups of categories, and developing schemas, allows us to construct and remember mental packages about relevant information.Therefore, our memory is the key to how we function and who we are.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Jon Jon was breaking his fast on applecakes and blood sausage when Samwell Tarly plopped himself down on the bench. Ã¢â¬Å"I've been summoned to the sept,Ã¢â¬ Sam said in an excited whisper. Ã¢â¬Å"They're passing me out of training. I'm to be made a brother with the rest of you. Can you believe it?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, truly?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Truly. I'm to assist Maester Aemon with the library and the birds. He needs someone who can read and write letters.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You'll do well at that,Ã¢â¬ Jon said, smiling. Sam glanced about anxiously. Ã¢â¬Å"Is it time to go? I shouldn't be late, they might change their minds.Ã¢â¬ He was fairly bouncing as they crossed the weed-strewn courtyard. The day was warm and sunny. Rivulets of water trickled down the sides of the Wall, so the ice seemed to sparkle and shine. Inside the sept, the great crystal caught the morning light as it streamed through the south-facing window and spread it in a rainbow on the altar. Pyp's mouth dropped open when he caught sight of Sam, and Toad poked Grenn in the ribs, but no one dared say a word. Septon Celladar was swinging a censer, filling the air with fragrant incense that reminded Jon of Lady Stark's little sept in Winterfell. For once the septon seemed sober. The high officers arrived in a body; Maester Aemon leaning on Clydas, Ser Alliser cold-eyed and grim, Lord Commander Mormont resplendent in a black wool doublet with silvered bearclaw fastenings. Behind them came the senior members of the three orders: red-faced Bowen Marsh the Lord Steward, First Builder Othell Yarwyck, and Ser Jaremy Rykker, who commanded the rangers in the absence of Benjen Stark. Mormont stood before the altar, the rainbow shining on his broad bald head. Ã¢â¬Å"You came to us outlaws,Ã¢â¬ he began, Ã¢â¬Å"poachers, rapers, debtors, killers, and thieves. You came to us children. You came to us alone, in chains, with neither friends nor honor. You came to us rich, and you came to us poor. Some of you bear the names of proud houses. Others have only bastards' names, or no names at all. It makes no matter. All that is past now. On the Wall, we are all one house. Ã¢â¬Å"At evenfall, as the sun sets and we face the gathering night, you shall take your vows. From that moment, you will be a Sworn Brother of the Night's Watch. Your crimes will be washed away, your debts forgiven. So too you must wash away your former loyalties, put aside your grudges, forget old wrongs and old loves alike. Here you begin anew. Ã¢â¬Å"A man of the Night's Watch lives his life for the realm. Not for a king, nor a lord, nor the honor of this house or that house, neither for gold nor glory nor a woman's love, but for the realm, and all the people in it. A man of the Night's Watch takes no wife and fathers no sons. Our wife is duty. Our mistress is honor. And you are the only sons we shall ever know. Ã¢â¬Å"You have learned the words of the vow. Think carefully before you say them, for once you have taken the black, there is no turning back. The penalty for desertion is death.Ã¢â¬ The Old Bear paused for a moment before he said, Ã¢â¬Å"Are there any among you who wish to leave our company? If so, go now, and no one shall think the less of you.Ã¢â¬ No one moved. Ã¢â¬Å"Well and good,Ã¢â¬ said Mormont. Ã¢â¬Å"You may take your vows here at evenfall, before Septon Celladar and the first of your order. Do any of you keep to the old gods?Ã¢â¬ Jon stood. Ã¢â¬Å"I do, my lord.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I expect you will want to say your words before a heart tree, as your uncle did,Ã¢â¬ Mormont said. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, my lord,Ã¢â¬ Jon said. The gods of the sept had nothing to do with him; the blood of the First Men flowed in the veins of the Starks. He heard Grenn whispering behind him. Ã¢â¬Å"There's no godswood here. Is there? I never saw a godswood.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You wouldn't see a herd of aurochs until they trampled you into the snow,Ã¢â¬ Pyp whispered back. Ã¢â¬Å"I would so,Ã¢â¬ Grenn insisted. Ã¢â¬Å"I'd see them a long way off.Ã¢â¬ Mormont himself confirmed Grenn's doubts. Ã¢â¬Å"Castle Black has no need of a godswood. Beyond the Wall the haunted forest stands as it stood in the Dawn Age, long before the Andals brought the Seven across the narrow sea. You will find a grove of weirwoods half a league from this spot, and mayhap your gods as well.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"My lord.Ã¢â¬ The voice made Jon glance back in surprise. Samwell Tarly was on his feet. The fat boy wiped his sweaty palms against his tunic. Ã¢â¬Å"Might I . . . might I go as well? To say my words at this heart tree?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Does House Tarly keep the old gods too?Ã¢â¬ Mormont asked. Ã¢â¬Å"No, my lord,Ã¢â¬ Sam replied in a thin, nervous voice. The high officers frightened him, Jon knew, the Old Bear most of all. Ã¢â¬Å"I was named in the light of the Seven at the sept on Horn Hill, as my father was, and his father, and all the Tarlys for a thousand years.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why would you forsake the gods of your father and your House?Ã¢â¬ wondered Ser Jaremy Rykker. Ã¢â¬Å"The Night's Watch is my House now,Ã¢â¬ Sam said. Ã¢â¬Å"The Seven have never answered my prayers. Perhaps the old gods will.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"As you wish, boy,Ã¢â¬ Mormont said. Sam took his seat again, as did Jon. Ã¢â¬Å"We have placed each of you in an order, as befits our need and your own strengths and skills.Ã¢â¬ Bowen Marsh stepped forward and handed him a paper. The Lord Commander unrolled it and began to read. Ã¢â¬Å"Haider, to the builders,Ã¢â¬ he began. Haider gave a stiff nod of approval. Ã¢â¬Å"Grenn, to the rangers. Albett, to the builders. Pypar, to the rangers.Ã¢â¬ Pyp looked over at Jon and wiggled his ears. Ã¢â¬Å"Samwell, to the stewards.Ã¢â¬ Sam sagged with relief, mopping at his brow with,a scrap of silk. Ã¢â¬Å"Matthar, to the rangers. Dareon, to the stewards. Todder, to the rangers. Jon, to the stewards.Ã¢â¬ The stewards? For a moment Jon could not believe what he had heard. Mormont must have read it wrong. He started to rise, to open his mouth, to tell them there had been a mistake . . . and then he saw Ser Alliser studying him, eyes shiny as two flakes of obsidian, and he knew. The Old Bear rolled up the paper. Ã¢â¬Å"Your firsts will instruct you in your duties. May all the gods preserve you, brothers.Ã¢â¬ The Lord Commander favored them with a half bow, and took his leave. Ser Alliser went with him, a thin smile on his face. Jon had never seen the master-at-arms took quite so happy. Ã¢â¬Å"Rangers with me,Ã¢â¬ Ser Jaremy Rykker called when they were gone. Pyp was staring at Jon as he got slowly to his feet. His ears were red. Grenn, grinning broadly, did not seem to realize that anything was amiss. Matt and Toad fell in beside them, and they followed Ser Jaremy from the sept. Ã¢â¬Å"Builders,Ã¢â¬ announced lantern-jawed Othell Yarwyck. Haider and Albett trailed out after him. Jon looked around him in sick disbelief. Maester Aemon's blind eyes were raised toward the light he could not see. The septon was arranging crystals on the altar. Only Sam and Darcon remained on the benches; a fat boy, a singer . . . and him. Lord Steward Bowen Marsh rubbed his plump hands together. Ã¢â¬Å"Samwell, you will assist Maester Aemon in the rookery and library. Chett is going to the kennels, to help with the hounds. You shall have his cell, so as to be close to the maester night and day. I trust you will take good care of him. He is very old and very precious to us. Ã¢â¬Å"Dareon, I am told that you sang at many a high lord's table and shared their meat and mead. We are sending you to Eastwatch. It may be your palate will be some help to Cotter Pyke when merchant galleys come trading. We are paying too dear for salt beef and pickled fish, and the quality of the olive oil we're getting has been frightful, Present yourself to Borcas when you arrive, he will keep you busy between ships.Ã¢â¬ Marsh turned his smile on Jon. Ã¢â¬Å"Lord Commander Mormont has requested you for his personal steward, Jon. You'll sleep in a cell beneath his chambers, in the Lord Commander's tower.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And what will my duties be?Ã¢â¬ Jon asked sharply. Ã¢â¬Å"Will I serve the Lord Commander's meals, help him fasten his clothes, fetch hot water for his bath?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Certainly.Ã¢â¬ Marsh frowned at Jon's tone. Ã¢â¬Å"And you will run his messages, keep a fire burning in his chambers, change his sheets and blankets daily, and do all else that the Lord Commander might require of you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Do you take me for a servant?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ Maester Aemon said, from the back of the sept. Clydas helped him stand. Ã¢â¬Å"We took you for a man of the Night's Watch . . . but perhaps we were wrong in that.Ã¢â¬ It was all Jon could do to stop himself from walking out. Was he supposed to churn butter and sew doublets like a girl for the rest of his days? Ã¢â¬Å"May I go?Ã¢â¬ he asked stiffly. Ã¢â¬Å"As you wish,Ã¢â¬ Bowen Marsh responded. Dareon and Sam left with him. They descended to the yard in silence. Outside, Jon looked up at the Wall shining in the sun, the melting ice creeping down its side in a hundred thin fingers. Jon's rage was such that he would have smashed it all in an instant, and the world be damned. Ã¢â¬Å"Jon,Ã¢â¬ Samwell Tarly said excitedly. Ã¢â¬Å"Wait. Don't you see what they're doing?Ã¢â¬ Jon turned on him in a fury. Ã¢â¬Å"I see Ser Alliser's bloody hand, that's all I see. He wanted to shame me, and he has.Ã¢â¬ Dareon gave him a look. Ã¢â¬Å"The stewards are fine for the likes of you and me, Sam, but not for Lord Snow.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm a better swordsman and a better rider than any of you,Ã¢â¬ Jon blazed back. Ã¢â¬Å"It's not fair!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Fair?Ã¢â¬ Dareon sneered. Ã¢â¬Å"The girl was waiting for me, naked as the day she was born. She pulled me through the window, and you talk to me of fair?Ã¢â¬ He walked off. Ã¢â¬Å"There is no shame in being a steward,Ã¢â¬ Sam said. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you think I want to spend the rest of my life washing an old man's smallclothes?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The old man is Lord Commander of the Night's Watch,Ã¢â¬ Sam reminded him. Ã¢â¬Å"You'll be with him day and night. Yes, you'll pour his wine and see that his bed linen is fresh, but you'll also take his letters, attend him at meetings, squire for him in battle. You'll be as close to him as his shadow. You'll know everything, be a part of everything . . . and the Lord Steward said Mormont asked for you himself! Ã¢â¬Å"When I was little, my father used to insist that I attend him in the audience chamber whenever he held court. When he rode to Highgarden to bend his knee to Lord Tyrell, he made me come. Later, though, he started to take Dickon and leave me at home, and he no longer cared whether I sat through his audiences, so long as Dickon was there. He wanted his heir at his side, don't you see? To watch and listen and learn from all he did. I'll wager that's why Lord Mormont requested you, Jon. What else could it be? He wants to groom you for command!Ã¢â¬ Jon was taken aback. It was true, Lord Eddard had often made Robb part of his councils back at Winterfell. Could Sam be right? Even a bastard could rise high in the Night's Watch, they said. Ã¢â¬Å"I never asked for this,Ã¢â¬ he said stubbornly. Ã¢â¬Å"None of us are here for asking,Ã¢â¬ Sam reminded him. And suddenly Jon Snow was ashamed. Craven or not, Samwell Tarly had found the courage to accept his fate like a man. On the Wall, a man gets only what he earns, Benjen Stark had said the last night Jon had seen him alive. You're no ranger, Jon, only a green boy with the smell of summer still on you. He'd heard it said that bastards grow up faster than other children; on the Wall, you grew up or you died. Jon let out a deep sigh. Ã¢â¬Å"You have the right of it. I was acting the boy.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Then you'll stay and say your words with me?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The old gods will be expecting us.Ã¢â¬ He made himself smile. They set out late that afternoon. The Wall had no gates as such, neither here at Castle Black nor anywhere along its three hundred miles. They led their horses down a narrow tunnel cut through the ice, cold dark walls pressing in around them as the passage twisted and turned. Three times their way was blocked by iron bars, and they had to stop while Bowen Marsh drew out his keys and unlocked the massive chains that secured them. Jon could sense the vast weight pressing down on him as he waited behind the Lord Steward. The air was colder than a tomb, and more still. He felt a strange relief when they reemerged into the afternoon light on the north side of the Wall. Sam blinked at the sudden glare and looked around apprehensively. Ã¢â¬Å"The wildlings . . . they wouldn't . . . they'd never dare come this close to the Wall. Would they?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"They never have.Ã¢â¬ Jon climbed into his saddle. When Bowen Marsh and their ranger escort had mounted, Jon put two fingers in his mouth and whistled. Ghost came loping out of the tunnel. The Lord Steward's garron whickered and backed away from the direwolf. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you mean to take that beast?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, my lord,Ã¢â¬ Jon said. Ghost's head lifted. He seemed to taste the air. In the blink of an eye he was off, racing across the broad, weed-choked field to vanish in the trees. Once they had entered the forest, they were in a different world. Jon had often hunted with his father and Jory and his brother Robb. He knew the wolfswood around Winterfell as well as any man. The haunted forest was much the same, and yet the feel of it was very different. Perhaps it was all in the knowing. They had ridden past the end of the world; somehow that changed everything. Every shadow seemed darker, every sound more ominous. The trees pressed close and shut out the light of the setting sun. A thin crust of snow cracked beneath the hooves of their horses, with a sound like breaking bones. When the wind set the leaves to rustling, it was like a chilly finger tracing a path up Jon's spine. The Wall was at their backs, and only the gods knew what lay ahead. The sun was sinking below the trees when they reached their destination, a small clearing in the deep of the wood where nine weirwoods grew in a rough circle. Jon drew in a breath, and he saw Sam Tarly staring. Even in the wolfswood, you never found more than two or three of the white trees growing together; a grove of nine was unheard of. The forest floor was carpeted with fallen leaves, bloodred on top, black rot beneath. The wide smooth trunks were bone pale, and nine faces stared inward. The dried sap that crusted in the eyes was red and hard as ruby. Bowen Marsh commanded them to leave their horses outside the circle. Ã¢â¬Å"This is a sacred place, we will not defile it.Ã¢â¬ When they entered the grove, Samwell Tarly turned slowly looking at each face in turn. No two were quite alike. Ã¢â¬Å"They're watching us,Ã¢â¬ he whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"The old gods.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes.Ã¢â¬ Jon knelt, and Sam knelt beside him. They said the words together, as the last light faded in the west and grey day became black night. Ã¢â¬Å"Hear my words, and bear witness to my vow,Ã¢â¬ they recited, their voices filling the twilit grove. Ã¢â¬Å"Night gathers, and now my watch begins. It shall not end until my death. I shall take no wife, hold no lands, father no children. I shall wear no crowns and win no glory. I shall live and die at my post. I am the sword in the darkness. I am the watcher on the walls. I am the fire that burns against the cold, the light that brings the dawn, the horn that wakes the sleepers, the shield that guards the realms of men. I pledge my life and honor to the Night's Watch, for this night and all the nights to come.Ã¢â¬ The woods fell silent. Ã¢â¬Å"You knelt as boys,Ã¢â¬ Bowen Marsh intoned solemnly. Ã¢â¬Å"Rise now as men of the Night's Watch.Ã¢â¬ Jon held out a hand to pull Sam back to his feet. The rangers gathered round to offer smiles and congratulations, all but the gnarled old forester Dywen. Ã¢â¬Å"Best we be starting back, m'lord,Ã¢â¬ he said to Bowen Marsh. Ã¢â¬Å"Dark's falling, and there's something in the smell o' the night that I mislike.Ã¢â¬ And suddenly Ghost was back, stalking softly between two weirwoods. White fur and red eyes, Jon realized, disquieted. Like the trees . . . The wolf had something in his jaws. Something black. Ã¢â¬Å"What's he got there?Ã¢â¬ asked Bowen Marsh, frowning. Ã¢â¬Å"To me, Ghost.Ã¢â¬ Jon knelt. Ã¢â¬Å"Bring it here.Ã¢â¬ The direwolf trotted to him. Jon heard Samwell Tarly's sharp intake of breath. Ã¢â¬Å"Gods be good,Ã¢â¬ Dywen muttered. Ã¢â¬Å"That's a hand.Ã¢â¬