Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Career Objective I am actively pursuing a challenging role as a Mechanical Fitter in the mining resources or construction industry where I can utilise my skills and experience working on various projects, specialising in industrial application spanning more than 10 years. As an experienced Mechanical Fitter/Team Leader, I am confident I would make a valuable addition to your team with the capacity to utilise rotating equipment, interpret engineering and technical drawings, together with proficiency utilising precision measuring equipment. I possess strong technical skills and a sound mechanical aptitude with the ability to work at heights, in confined spaces and challenging conditions. Self-motivated, flexible and adaptable, to work various shifts and rosters on a FIFO basis, I consistently adhere to workplace safety regulations, instil a positive safety culture, promote safe work practices and contribute to achieving a zero harm environment. Trade Qualifications 2009 Certificate III in Engineering (Mechanical) NSW Department of Education Training/TAFE NSW 2008 Certificate II in Engineering - Mechanical Trade NSW Department of Education Training/TAFE NSW Licences, Tickets Certificates 2015 Observe Permit Work, SERATA Network 2015 Enter Confined Space, SERATA Network 2015 Work Safely at Heights, SERATA Network 2015 Gas Test Atmospheres, SERATA Network 2015 Confine Small Workplace Emergencies, SERATA Network 2015 Work in Accordance with anShow MoreRelatedStrategic Marketing Management337596 Words Ã |Ã 1351 Pagesmarket leaders Strategies for market challengers Strategies for market followers Strategies for market nichers Military analogies and competitive strategy: a brief summary The inevitability of strategic wear-out (or the law of marketing gravity and why dead cats only bounce once) The influence of product evolution and the product life cycle on strategy Achieving above-average performance and excellence Summary 387 390 396 423 425 427 427 427 428 438 447 461 463 465 474 478 484 489 493 495 497
Monday, December 23, 2019
Taxes are a required aid from individual incomes or business profits collected by the government that funds certain actions and services provided by the government for the people. Taxes in the United States originated in the 1760s. The current tax system the country has is a progressive tax. A progressive tax is a tax system where higher incomes tax at higher percentages than those with lower incomes. The tax system that was anticipated that the economy should switch to is a flat tax. A flat tax is a system where all income would pay the same percentage towards taxes regardless of how much money they make. This is a major controversy due to the major impacts switching the current tax system would have on the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy as a whole. Liberals commonly believe in the government taking action to achieve equal opportunity and equality for all (Conservatives vs Liberal Beliefs, 2010). Liberals generally support the progressive tax system the economy has in place over the suggested flat tax system. Progressive taxes uphold the principles of equality for the reason that it allows all citizens to sacrifice equally according to their income and it gives them equal opportunity as well. (Debate: Progressive Tax vs Flat Tax, 2010) Liberals that support a progressive tax argue that it is compatible with capitalism because it does not advocate that the means of production and distribution ought to be controlled by the community as a whole nor does itShow MoreRelatedThe Tax System Of The United States1597 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand services is provided by the government for the people. Taxes in the United States can be originated all the way back to the 1760s. The current tax system the country has is a progressive tax. A progressive tax is a taxation system where higher incomes get taxed at higher percentages than those with lower incomes. The tax system that has been proposed that the economy should switch to is a flat tax. A flat tax is a system where all i ncome would have to pay the same percentage towards taxes regardlessRead MoreThe United States Tax System1576 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe United States tax system has an extensive history that has transformed from a modest system to a complex taxation system over the years. From the beginning, the tax system has undergone changes due to past wars, inclusion of social programs, changes to social programs, presidential views, and economic fluctuations. Every tax year, the tax laws continue to change from the methods of the past. In the years of the 1600Ã¢â¬â¢s and the middle 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s, the English settlers were the dominant people whoRead MoreThe Tax System Of The United States1597 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesactions and services is provided by the government for the people. Taxes in the United States originated all the way back in the 1760s. The current tax system the country has is a progressive tax. A progressive tax is a taxation system where higher incomes get taxed at higher percentages than those with lower incomes. The tax system that was anticipated that the economy should switch to is a flat tax. A flat tax is a system where all income would have to pay the same percentage towards taxes regardlessRead MoreThe United States Tax System1487 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPolitics is the process in which negotiation and resistance is utilized to establish a stable society. In contrast, the current United States tax system fails to form such solid grounds. Without such a complex system, anarchy and chaos will o verrule the goal of fairness that is favorable to people. Taxation is a branch of politics that is distorted in some ways in which it does not satisfy many peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. Although a government is designed to run an organized society and meet the needs of citizensRead MoreThe Tax System Of The United States854 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTax System Tax system is a legal system of imposing and collecting taxes from the citizens of the country. As it has been stated by Albert Einstein, the hardest task in the world is to understand the tax system of a country. The United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ tax system is so complicated that its tax code contains almost 3 million words and 6,000 pages. Moreover, the taxes implied by city and state governments add more complexity to the federal taxation system. In this case, we do not need to understand the complexityRead MoreThe United States Tax System1799 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesPast Influences, the United States Tax System The Power of Tax Franklin D Roosevelt once said Ã¢â¬Å"Taxes, after all, are dues that we pay for the privileges of membership in an organized societyÃ¢â¬ . Though the word, tax, itself has so much power the basic definition is to asses a fee against a citizen person, property, or activity for the support of the government (Tax, n.d. , para. 2). Just mentioning taxes as a headliner on a newscast will draw the public in to listen to the news. The word is unescapableRead MoreThe Flat Tax System Of The United States Essay1663 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestaxes. With this being said, the United States has adopted a progressive tax since its very existence. We believe that if our nation is placed under a flat tax system, our economy will operate more effectively. If we incorporate a flat tax system we will be able to ensure fairness among all citizens, eliminate tax loopholes, and allow opportunities for business expansion. With this being said, we will be examining the strengths and weaknesses about the flat tax system and how it has been used into practiceRead MoreThe Progressive Tax System Of The United States Essay2092 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages There is an issue that has plagued the United States even prior to the founding of the nation. That issue is fair taxation. While the American Colonists were being taxed unfairly without parliamentary representation, average modern Americans are being taxed unfairly without legal representation. Some hold the belief that the progressive tax code employed by the United States to be fair as the wealthy pay a higher marginal tax rate. The operative word there being marginal. As the upper class typicallyRead MoreThe United States Tax System and Flat Tax Essay1892 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe United States Tax System and Flat Tax The United States tax system is in complete disarray. Republicans and Democrats agree that the current tax code is complex, unfair, and costly. The income tax system is so complex; the IRS publishes 480 tax forms and 280 forms to explain the 480 forms (Armey 1). The main reason the tax system is so complex is because of the special preferences such as deductions and tax credits. Complexity in the current tax system forces Americans to spend 5.4Read MoreProgressive Tax Systems in Europe and the United States1135 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesprogressive tax would be the perfect tax structure to choose. This is a system where the tax rate increases as the taxable base increases as well. As we recall from history, President George Bush had enacted a tax cut from 2001 Ã¢â¬â 2010. Over this ten year Americas wealthiest had received tax cuts totaling almost half a trillion. By 2010 while BushÃ¢â¬â¢s tax reductions were still in place 52 percent of the tax cuts had gone to the 1 perce nt richest whose average income was 1.5 million Ã¢â¬Å"Their tax-cut windfall
Sunday, December 15, 2019
UlEverybody may be confused to what would be the answer with the question, Ã¢â¬ Who is a Hero and How can you be a Hero? Ã¢â¬Å". From the word itself, Hero means a person with a powerful body, a strong open mind, and someone who lives according to their values and ambitions. So, who really is a Hero and how you can be one of it? Is it those who made a revolutionary cause to impose away the non-native colonizers? Or is it someone who did a silent and solemnizes way to drive away those who omitted an immoral deeds to our beloved country? Every person in this world can be considered a hero in his own littlest or largest great way. We will write a custom essay sample on Who is a Hero for You? or any similar topic only for you Order Now For there are countless ways and reasons to be done and to be one. In our nation, we used to give an account to those who fought for our freedom. Yes, I also consider them as one but whom I supposed to look upon is the one who faced a lot of trouble and excruciation not only from exterior but from within as well and still, made a way to set It aside and soar upon it. It is not about being a hypocrite for we are taking a subject about a roes life, but it is about my realization to whom I should consider a hero according to the discussions and readings that we have been taking. A hero for me Is the one who really loves his country that much, and someone who Is concern with his countrymen. A man who Is able to keep on fighting for our own freedom and Justice with handling his beliefs and philosophy until his last breath. A hero Is also the one who Is a master in not Just one field and skill but about more than a number In a decade. Someone who canÃ¢â¬â¢t see his country and fellowmen suffering because of the abusive government and colonizers. A real hero Is the one who has a lot of dreams for his nation and his people, and never stopped to strive and rise upon It even he has his own Incapableness, weaknesses and luckless. Therefore, the above title Ã¢â¬Å"The undying Past-MasterÃ¢â¬ means that though this someone Is already burned under the stone, he Is still being remembered and until now, his greatness Is still In our dally lives, wherever else. The life of him has past already but his legacy In works and deeds will always be an undying one for It Is such a great Influence and Inspiration to each and everyone of us, that someday soon despite of our Imperfections, we can cake a better things not Just for ourselves but also to others. Who is a Hero for You? By Cheekbone not only from exterior but from within as well and still, made a way to set it aside and to the discussions and readings that we have been taking. A hero for me is the one who really loves his country that much, and someone who is concern with his countrymen. A man who is able to keep on fighting for our own freedom and Justice with handling his beliefs and philosophy until his last breath. A hero is also the one who is a master in not Just one field and skill but about more than a number in a abusive government and colonizers. A real hero is the one who has a lot of dreams for his nation and his people, and never stopped to strive and rise upon it even he has his own incapableness, weaknesses and luckless. Therefore, the above title Ã¢â¬Å"The Undying Past-MasterÃ¢â¬ means that though this someone is already buried under the stone, he is still being remembered and until now, his greatness is still in our daily lives, wherever else. The life of him has past already but his legacy in works and deeds will always be an undying one for it is such a great influence and inspiration to each and everyone of us, that someday soon despite of our imperfections, we can How to cite Who is a Hero for You?, Papers
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Mental Health Addiction and Solutions. Answer: Mental health and addiction have become a sector of concern worldwide. Many countries have been affected and are in a rush to find the solutions and ways of reducing the problem of mental health and addiction. Different organisations both public and private in different countries have come up with solutions on how to minimize the cases of mental health and addiction problems affecting the youths by holding rallies. Through these rallies the youth are being educated on how to avoid things such as addiction which is mostly caused by drug abuse. Considering that the youth are the future leaders, there is need to solve the problems of mental health and addiction which are affecting them. In many countries, mental health and addiction problems have been rampant especially in urban areas as compared to rural areas. This is as a result of many people migrating from their rural areas to urban centres in search of jobs. As a result of large population in urban areas, there are more people affected by mental health and addiction problems in urban areas compared to rural areas (Wang, Aguilar-Gaxiola, Alonso, Angermeyer, Borges, Bromet, Haro, 2014). As a result of many people being affected by mental health in urban areas, more rehabilitation centres have been set up in order to cater for the need of the affected group. Aotearoa, New Zealand is one of the affected cities where there is rampant growth of mental health and addiction problems. New Zealand addiction intervention system is focused on treatment of individuals in specialist addiction services. This focus in only appropriate for people with severe addiction. Due to increase in number of people suffering from mental health and addiction in aotearoa, New Zealand, the government of New Zealand has started setting up more rehabilitation centres in order to treat the affected people (Crisp et al., 2013). Due to increase in the number of people affected by mental health and addiction problems, the primary health and social services are underutilised in provision of treatment to people with addiction issues (Hlatywayo,2011). The current mental health and addiction sector is extended to cater for the larger group of people who are severely addicted and experiencing problems related to their situation, and also ensure early interventions as possible. This will be achieved through better integrations of primary, secondary and tertiary services to eradicate impacts and es calation of addiction. It has also been found addiction and treatment services are family centred by actively working to reduce addiction effects on all family members (Teesson et al., 2010). This is by specialists who visit families from door to door educating the affected families. Despite the growth of government and addiction services, the value of family inclusive practise, the vast majority of adult services still focuses on individual services. The purpose of this sector is to increase effective tools and resources that support people, to reduce or stop their problematic substances or other addictive behaviours. Primary health services are the first contact with mental health professional, and are widely accessible to individuals and families. They are funded by ministry of health and made up of number of health care providers, mobile nursing services and pharmacist. Primary health services are provided to specific population within geographical area and cultural focus (McKenna et al.,2009). Also, it targets health promotion and screening programmes, which help to determine whether particular problems may or may not be present. It also determines the degree of extend of the problems for the whole population. This is done to ensure that the people at risk are met for early interventions and treatment. Primary health services also provide care to mentally ill and addicted people, through cognitive behavioural therapy, psychoanalytical therapy, family therapy, group therapy, individual therapy, health lifestyle services and specialist youth provision (Browne et al.,2011). Enhancement of interventions for opioid dependence through maximising access to opioid treatment, retention, supporting recovery and addressing peoples wider needs by reducing opioid side effects. This will include extending the use of primary care that is well supported by specialist services to deliver interventions to opioid dependence people. Primary health services will also offer self-management education programmes like self-management education, education therapy programmes and also programmes provided by peer support specialist. This will equip people with knowledge and skills to manage their own condition and reduce its adverse impacts on their life and to work in partnership with other services to enhance their wellbeing. In addition, primary health care will work actively to improve coordination through ensuring that people who access range of services from mental health and addiction sector collaborate with other network of services like non-governmental organisations mental health, specialist services and other government agencies (Consedine, 2008). This is done to ensure that there are more solutions to mental health and addiction problems among the people. Through collaboration more information about the problems is available hence reducing the number of affected people. This also reduces the effect of mental health and addiction problems in future to the affected group. Secondary health services are provided especially to people with more serious mental health and addiction issues. They are more specialised like in primary health services. The government strategy refers to these services three percent target of the severely affected people. These services are provided by both governmental and private non-governmental funded organisations. This is done in order to fulfil the needs of the large population which is affected by mental health and addiction problems in the city. In secondary health services mental health profession access and treatment is done using many technics. These include medications like antidepressants such as heterocyclic and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, which are administered to control constipation and pain control medicines (Baldwin et al.,2008). Other medications used are psychotherapies like individual and group therapy. While other services focus on recovery and supporting people to live independently within the community. Services offered are: community alcohol and drug services which are capable of treating existing addicted and mental health problems, providing treatment for alcohol and other gambling problems and also bringing other treatment options together and improving access to treatment. And will also ensure recovery and wellness support incorporating harm reduction and abstinence approaches (Browne et al., 2011). Secondly secondary health services offer community living services which are given to disabled people. These services are provided by providers in partnership with the ministry of health, to help reduce substance abuse to hose people. Third is provision of peer support services which are currently offered by every district in aotearoa New Zealand (Wepa, 2010) This is all about relationships and mutuality and is growing as part of mental health sector. It includes modelling of relationships by peer support people and supports access to housing, education, employment, social and recreational activities. It also supports cultural peer services especially with indigenous people, material support like food storage, internet and transportation and support during crisis. Also provides supervision of peer educators. Secondary health services offer problem gambling services which provides psychological support and clinical interventions, like counselling services for people experiencing gambling harm including gamblers and those affected. Tertiary health services provide intensive, highly specialist care and targets specific people or groups across age speculum such as pre and postnatal services to children, adolescents and adults (OBrien et al.,2010). This is done through ways such as acute inpatient mental health treatment, which includes psychiatry assessment and treatment, educational programmes regarding illness management and lifestyles changes, individual counselling, medication planning and management. Inpatient medical management with withdrawal services also provide withdrawal symptoms results from stopping use of most substances after heavy prolonged use. The provision of these services is to ensure safety of others and self when substances are stopped or reduced and where possible to address withdrawal symptoms to alleviate acute distress (Consedine, 2012). This is done through hospital based withdrawal management, social detoxification and withdrawal medical beds, social service based withdrawal management and also use of complementary and alternative therapies for withdrawal management like acupuncture, message, aromatherapy, homeopathic remedies and mineral and herbal supplements. Secondary health services are also archived through forensic science services which are provided in four specific areas of provision within regional forensic science model (Wang et al., 2014). These include in courts, prisons, inpatient setting and community.in courts they provide advice, assessment, court reports and recommendations to judiciary. The court reports are completed by psychiatrist and psychologist from the mentally ill people. The services to prison is in essence, no difference from that of general community mental health service, but there are specific limitations in service provision in a prison setting (Bushnell et al., 2013). Responsibility of forensic science is to accept referrals either from primary cares or mental health teams when their clients need mental health clinics, screening, assessment and ongoing treatment (McKenna et al., 2008). The inpatient and residential services are also applicable especially where there are acute cases of mental health problems. These include; acute mental health services, assessment and treatment for specific patients. In cases where acute mental health services are required, professional nurses are the key characters. This is because they have more knowledge on how to handle such cases, and therefore the patient is at a high chances of healing. In community where management of specific patients, consultation, liaison services, specialised community support, service provider funding for enhanced community support for clients who are re-integrating back to the community after period in forensic setting and lastly forensic residential service in conjunction with non-governmental organisation providers. Many organisations both governmental and non-governmental organisations have been set up to educate the youths (Cowie, 2011). This has been done especially in schools where mental health and addiction specialists such as mental health nurses are being sent to schools in order to educate student so that they can be aware of these problems early in advance. The mental health specialists can either pass the message to all students at a time or choose few students who are peer educators in order to teach them (Gillanders, 2010). The peer educators then pass the message to their fellow students who are therefore educated. Many people prefer that the mental health and addiction specialists use peer educators in this case (Browne et al., 2011). These is because students know is other and are also more free while with their fellow students rather than strangers. Education on mental health and addiction problems is therefore well passed where students are used to pass the message to their fellow students, since the students feel free and they can therefore as questions freely without fear (O'hagan, 2009). The government of New Zealand has also supported non-governmental organisations through financial support since many of these organisations are faced by financial problems. Therefore, in order to reduce the number of people of people affected by mental health and addiction in aotearoa, the government of New Zealand has released more funds to non- governmental organisation who are responsible in creating awareness to the people living in the area. The government of New Zealand has also started setting up more rehabilitation centres in the aotearoa area in order to rehabilitate the affected group. More school of mental health nursing have also been set up. This has increased the number of students specialising in the mental health nursing sector, and this with help deal with the increasing number of people affected by mental health and addiction problems (OBrien et al.,2010). Considering that the major cause of mental health problems is depression especially among the adults, the government of New Zealand has started educating adults on how to avoid depression. This has been done in both family education and also individual education. This has also been done through public education with the aim of reaching every adult who is at a risk of depression. This education is done by both governmental and non-governmental agencies in New Zealand. In order to reduce the rate of addiction among the youths in aotearoa, the government of New Zealand has started creating more jobs. This is done in order to ensure that the youths are always committed and thus they have less chances of being involved in things such as drug abuse which leads to addiction (Chapman et al., 2015). The government of New Zealand has also send a warning to drug traffickers and drug abusers. Those who are found trafficking the drugs are going to face the law. This has reduced addiction among the youth in aotearoa, New Zealand since there is fear of being caught trafficking drugs (McBain, 2013). This has also reduced the number of drugs traffickers hence only few youths are able to access the drugs and this has reduced the problem of addiction and also mental health problems since some drugs such as cocaine if used for a long time, leads to a mental health problem. The government of New Zealand is struggling to ensure that all children are able to get education. Through going to school, the children will be able to get enough education on mental health and addiction. Going to school also will reduce idleness and therefore the youths will not get time to engage themselves with bad companies where they can be taught on how to use alcohol and other commonly abused drugs (Patton et al., 2009). In schools, the government has also initiated programs in which all students are taught about addiction and mental health and how to avoid them. Private sectors have also taken this opportunity to send counsellors of different specialisations to schools in order to counsel students in schools. This has helped a lot especially in aotearoa where there is high population of youths engaging in drug abuse. The government of New Zealand has also come up with policies governing selling of alcohol. The selling of alcohol has been rampant especially in the city of aotearoa. In order to reduce the case of addiction, the government has set strict policies to alcohol sellers. This has reduced addiction since only few will be able to meet the requirements and qualifications of selling alcohol (Browne et al., 2011). The government has also gone to the extent of reducing the time for opening alcohol pumps. The government has also restricted selling of alcohol to a certain age, and this has greatly reduced the problems of addiction and mental health. Considering that there are many street children around the city of aotearoa, in order to reduce cases of mental health and addiction, the government of New Zealand has gone to an extent of providing housing to the homeless children (O'hagan, 2009). Not only the government, but also the non-governmental organisations have supported this. They have worked hand in hand to ensure that homeless children acquire homes hence reducing the number of street children in the city hence reducing cases of addiction and mental health in aotearoa, New Zealand. References Baldwin, A., Patuwai, R., Hawken, D. (2008). Peer reciprocal supervision in a community child and family health service.Supervision in the helping professions: A practical approach, 299-312. Browne, O., MA, W. JE, Scott, KM (Eds.). (2011).Te rau hinengaro: The New Zealand mental health survey. Bushnell, J., McLeod, D., Dowell, A. D., Salmond, C., Ramage, S., Collings, S., ... McBain, L. (2013). The nature and prevalence of psychological problems in New Zealand primary healthcare: a report on Mental Health and General Practice Investigation (MaGPIe). Chapman, C., Slade, T., Hunt, C., Teesson, M. (2015). Delay to first treatment contact for alcohol use disorder.Drug and alcohol dependence,147, 116-121. Consedine, M. (2008). Developing abilities: the future of clinical supervision?Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing,7(5), 471-474. Consedine, M. (2012). Supervision and the reduction of anxiety.Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal, (12), 32. Cowie, C. (2011).Conceptualising the foundation of an effective clinical supervision cycle in Mental Health Nursing(Doctoral dissertation, University of Otago). Cowie, C. (2011).Conceptualising the foundation of an effective clinical supervision cycle in Mental Health Nursing(Doctoral dissertation, University of Otago). Crisp, A. H., Gelder, M. G., Rix, S., Meltzer, H. I., Rowlands, O. J. (2013). Stigmatisation of people with mental illnesses.The British Journal of Psychiatry,177(1), 4-7. Gillanders, M. J. (2010).Towards the Development of'Good Practices' for Recording Social Work Supervision in Aotearoa New Zealand after the Introduction of Registration(Doctoral dissertation, University of Otago). Hlatywayo, E. (2011).An exploration of the experiences of mental health and addictions nurses providing clinical supervision in a New Zealand District Health Board(Doctoral dissertation). McKenna, B., Thom, K., Howard, F., Williams, V. (2009). Professional supervision for mental health and addiction nurses: A review of current approaches to professional supervision internationally and in the New Zealand mental health and addiction sector.Auckland: TePou o TeWhakaaro Nui, the National Centre of Mental Health Research, Information and Workforce Development. OBrien, A. J., Hughes, F. A., Kidd, J. D. (2010). Mental health nursing in New Zealand primary health care.Contemporary Nurse,21(1), 142-152., M. (2009).Recovery Competencies for New Zealand Mental Health Workers. For full text: https://www. mhc. govt. nz. Patton, G. C., Coffey, C., Carlin, J. B., Degenhardt, L., Lynskey, M., Hall, W. (2009). Cannabis use and mental health in young people: cohort study.Bmj,325(7374), 1195-1198. Teesson, M., Hall, W., Slade, T., Mills, K., Grove, R., Mewton, L., ... Haber, P. (2010). Prevalence and correlates of DSM?IV alcohol abuse and dependence in Australia: findings of the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.Addiction,105(12), 2085-2094. Wang, P. S., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M. C., Borges, G., Bromet, E. J., ... Haro, J. M. (2014). Use of mental health services for anxiety, mood, and substance disorders in 17 countries in the WHO world mental health surveys.The Lancet,370(9590), 841-850. Wepa, D. (2010). Clinical supervision in Aotearoa/New Zealand.Health Perspective.
Friday, November 29, 2019
The Majesty Of Nuuanu Essay, Research Paper On the island of Oahu, at the farthest ranges of emerald-garbed Nuuanu Valley is the Nuuanu Pali there # 8217 ; s a topographic point you can see to bask dense viridity forest, dramatic mountain-to-ocean positions, and a piece of Hawaiian history. Nuuanu is an country located on the southeasterly portion of the island and Pali is a Hawaiian word significance drop . Geting there is really simple if you # 8217 ; re coming from Honolulu. Get on H-1 expressway so take the Pali Highway off-ramp. Once on Pali Highway, follow the green marks alongside the route to make your finish. The drive should take about 15 to 20 proceedingss. Ladies, don # 8217 ; t have on a frock or skirt when sing the Pali because it # 8217 ; s really windy and you won # 8217 ; t bask yourself if you # 8217 ; re worrying about aliens seeing your underwear. Likewise, gentlemen, don # 8217 ; t wear chapeaus, loose dark glassess, or toupees to the site because when a strong blast of air current comes along, you may neer see your properties once more. We will write a custom essay sample on The Majesty Of Nuuanu Essay Research Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Because of the air current, a jacket or jumper is recommended. Depending on the season, sporadic showers of rain are besides common. Make convey a camera, for the position is fabulous and you will non be disappointed. Nuuanu Pali is surrounded by dense forest heavy with wet. As you travel up Pali Highway, the houses begin to thin and the verdure begins to take over. During the winter and spring there are many waterfalls to be seen in the mountains. The trees, covered with moss and green writhing vines, block out the Sun and civilisation. The workss and vines seem to hold taken over everything except the asphalt route being driven on. All of a sudden, the forest terminals and a little unfastened parking batch appears. The sentinel is at the terminal of a paved paseo. On the sides of the paseo are a twosome of sellers. One seller sells Jerseies and custodies out booklets which educate people about the issue of Hawaiian Sovereignty. The other seller sells Polynesian humanistic disciplines and trades. As you stand at the sentinel, expression at the knife-edged ridges to your left and right. These cragged weaponries that embrace the win dward side as far north as Kualoa and as far south as Waimanalo are mere leftovers of Koolau mountain, they are landward wall of what once was a monolithic vent. Time and ocean tides have eroded and collapsed the offshore side of the vent. From the sentinel, many towns and topographic points of involvement can be seen. To the left is Kahaluu and the new H-3 expressway. Straight in front is Kaneohe and Kaneohe Bay. Olomana and Kailua are to the right. You can besides see Kaneohe Marine Corps Air Station, the Koolau and Pali golf classs, and Kapaa Quarry. The Koolau Mountains are amazing, olympian, and breathtaking. The blues of the ocean and sky blend together, doing it hard to state where the Earth ends and where the sky begins. Sometimes, the clouds and mist bead depression over the mountains and sheets of rain can be seen falling over the land and sea. Double and ternary rainbows are besides a familiar sight. The cold air current invariably blows and brings the aroma of rain, ferns, and moist Earth mixed together. Standing at that place, at the border of the drop, watching land, sea and sky semen together and feeling and hearing the tanning wind all about, it is easy to be transported back to a clip before concrete, cars, and pollution. More than 200 old ages ago, a great warrior head from the island of Hawaii named Kamehameha envisioned unifying all the Hawaiian islands. Many heads, including High Chief Kalanikupule from the island of Oahu did non portion in Kamehameha # 8217 ; s dream and decided to dispute him. In 1795, 1000s of Kamehameha # 8217 ; s warriors drove Kalanikupule and his ground forces up to Nuuanu Pali where many fell or fought to their deceases. Subsequently, in the early 1800s, the kamaaina would track the deadly Nuuanu Pali with kids, nutrient, and supplies tied to their dorsums. In 1897, a main road was built and during the building, workers found about 800 skulls and other castanetss at the underside of the drop # 8211 ; remains of the warriors who were defeated by Kamehameha. Many more betterments were made to the main road and now the old route is a boosting trail which branches off from the sentinel point.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Douglas SBD Dauntless Divebomber in World War II The Douglas SBD Dauntless was the mainstay of the US Navys dive bomber fleet for much of World War II (1939-1945). Produced between 1940 and 1944, the aircraft was adored by its flight crews which praised its ruggedness, dive performance, maneuverability, and heavy armament. Flown from both carriers and land bases, the Slow but Deadly Dauntless played key roles at the decisive Battle of Midway and during the campaign to capture Guadalcanal. Also an excellent scout aircraft, the Dauntless remained in frontline use until 1944 when most US Navy squadrons began transitioning to the more powerful, but less popular Curtiss SB2C Helldiver.Ã Ã Design Development: Following the US Navys introduction of the Northrop BT-1 dive bomber in 1938, designers at Douglas began working on an improved version of the aircraft. Using the BT-1 as a template, the Douglas team, led by designer Ed Heinemann, produced a prototype which was dubbed the XBT-2. Centered on the 1,000 hp Wright Cyclone engine, the new aircraft featured a 2,250 lb. bomb load and a speed of 255 mph. Two forward firing .30 cal. machine guns and one rear-facing .30 cal. were provided for defense.Ã Featuring all metal construction (except for fabric covered control surfaces), the XBT-2 utilized a low-wing cantilever configuration and includedÃ hydraulically actuated, perforated split dive-brakes. Another change from the BT-1 saw the landing gear shift from retracting backwards to closing laterally into recessed wheel wells in the wing. Re-designated the SBD (Scout Bomber Douglas) following Douglas purchase of Northrop, the Dauntless was selected by the US Navy and Marine Corps to replace their existing dive bomber fleets. Production and Variants: In April 1939, the first orders were placed with the USMC opting for the SBD-1 and the Navy selecting the SBD-2. While similar, the SBD-2 possessed a greater fuel capacity and a slightly different armament. The first generation of Dauntlesses reached operational units in late 1940 and early 1941. As the sea services were transitioning to the SBD, the US Army placed an order for the aircraft in 1941, designating it the A-24 Banshee. In March 1941, the Navy took possession of the improved SBD-3 which featured self-sealing fuel tanks, enhanced armor protection, and an expanded array of weapons including an upgrade to two forward-firing .50 cal. machine guns in the cowling and twin .30 cal. machine guns on a flexible mount for the rear gunner. The SBD-3 also saw a switch to the more powerful Wright R-1820-52 engine. Subsequent variants included the SBD-4, with an enhanced 24-volt electrical system, and the definitive SBD-5. The most produced of all SBD types, the SBD-5 was powered by a 1,200 hp R-1820-60 engine and had a larger ammunition capacity than its predecessors. Over 2,900 SBD-5s were built, mostly at Douglas Tulsa, OK plant. A SBD-6 was designed, but it was not produced in large numbers (450 total) as Dauntless production was ended in 1944, in favor of the new Curtiss SB2C Helldiver. A total of 5,936 SBDs were built during its production run. Specifications (SBD-5) General Length: 33 ft. 1 in.Wingspan: 41 ft. 6 in.Height: 13 ft. 7 in.Wing Area: 325 sq. ft.Empty Weight: 6,404 lbs.Loaded Weight: 10,676 lbs.Crew: 2 Performance Power Plant: 1 Ãâ" Wright R-1820-60 radial engine, 1,200 hpRange: 773 milesMax Speed: 255 mphCeiling: 25,530 ft. Armament Guns: 2 x .50 cal. machine guns (mounted in cowling), 1 x (later 2 x) flexible-mounted .30 cal. machine gun(s) in rearBombs/Rockets: 2,250 lbs. of bombs Operational History The backbone of the US Navys dive bomber fleet at the outbreak of World War II, the SBD Dauntless saw immediate action around the Pacific. Flying from American carriers, SBDs aided in sinking the Japanese carrier Shoho at the Battle of the Coral Sea (May 4-8, 1942). A month later, the Dauntless proved vital in turning the tide of the war at the Battle of Midway (June 4-7, 1942). Launching from the carriers USS Yorktown (CV-5), USS Enterprise (CV-6), and USS Hornet (CV-8), SBDs successfully attacked and sank four Japanese carriers. The aircraft next saw service during the battles for Guadalcanal. Flying from carriers and Guadalcanals Henderson Field, SBDs provided support for the Marines on the island as well as flew strike missions against the Imperial Japanese Navy.Ã Though slow by the standards of the day, the SBD proved a rugged aircraft and was beloved by its pilots. Due to its relatively heavy armament for a dive bomber (2 forward .50 cal. machine guns, 1-2 flex-mounted, rear-facing .30 cal. machine guns) the SBD proved surprisingly effective in dealing with Japanese fighters such as the A6M Zero. Some authors have even argued that the SBD finished the conflict with a plus score against enemy aircraft. The Dauntless last major action came in June 1944, at the Battle of Philippine Sea (June 19-20, 1944). Following the battle, most SBD squadrons were transitioned to the new SB2C Helldiver, though several US Marine Corps units continued to fly the Dauntless for the remainder of the war. Many SBD flight crews made the transition to the new SB2C Helldiver with great reluctance. Though bigger and faster than the SBD, the Helldiver was plagued by production and electrical problems that made it unpopular with its crews. Many reflected that they wanted to continue flying the Slow but Deadly Dauntless rather than the new Son of a Bitch 2nd Class Helldiver. The SBD was fully retired at the end of the war. A-24 Banshee in Army Service While the aircraft proved highly effective for the US Navy, it was less so for the US Army Air Forces. Though it saw combat over Bali, Java, and New Guinea during the early days of the war, it was not well received and squadrons suffered heavy casualties. Relegated to non-combat missions, the aircraft did not see action again until an improved version, the A-24B, entered service later in the war. The USAAFs complaints about the aircraft tended to cite its short range (by their standards) and slow speed.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Individual Constructions of PA-Related Reality Assignment - Essay Example A weak leader would always want to get ahead. He does not care whether or not he steps on anyone as long as it serves his ulterior motives. He is not able to motivate and neglects his responsibilities. A good administrator carefully oversees the work of his subordinates. He is able to adequately shade them yet not go so far as to overshadow them. This also means that he recognizes the work that everyone has done and does not claim all the credit for his own. As opposed to a good administrator, a bad one takes control of all situations. He is usually narrow-minded in his decisions and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow for input other than his own. Much like this picture, the atmosphere between him and other members of the organization is gloomy. It is quite apparent that the garbage problem is one of the most difficult to solve. Every year the population continues to increase and these problems grows along with it. There may be visible remedies to this but is obvious that they are mere band aid solutions. This would have to be recycling. There are still many households who do not follow proper garbage disposal protocol. This may not be an ominous problem at face value but it has a great impact on life as we know it. The most pressing problem of the nation is quite perceptibly the collapse of the economy. Because of this many are affected and the continuous effort of the government must be kept at a solid pace. Only time can tell the effectiveness of the measures being undertaken. The most pressing problem of the world is how we respond to the imminent dangers of global warning. This is the dawn of what could be a pivotal point in our history. How we react to nature as human beings is something that is of the utmost import. Like a lighthouse, an activist shows the light to guide the people to the right way. Their convictions are not without merit which accounts for their intensity to fight. They give a different
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Diverse Britain - Essay Example A list is long but important thing is that rule and laws gave them equal rights who settled in UK regardless of their ethnicity, race and culture. (Ethnic Diversity) Some of the demographic features of ethnic diversity in UK are worth enumerating. Ethnicity Population Proportion in total UK population Bangladeshi 283,063 0.5% Black (others) ,585 0.2% Black African ,277 0.8% Black Caribbean ,876 1.0% Chinese ,403 0.4% Indian ,053,411 1.8% Mixed race ,117 1.2% Other ,615 0.4% Other Asian (non-Chinese) ,644 0.4% Pakistani ,285 1.3% White ,153,898 92.1% Source: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/CCI/nugget.asp?ID=273 It will be most interesting now to see how media people respond to the notions of ethnic diversity in UK. R eports from Print Media Murrells (2011) in The Guardian reports under the heading Ã¢â¬ËPreston's Nathan Ellington claims he was racially abused at MillwallÃ¢â¬â¢. Nathan Ellington claimed he had a worst racial humiliation of his life at Millwall. "I've never seen a more racist and abusive crowd as I saw today at Millwall! Disgrace to the human race." Murrells (2011) further writes quoting Ellington, Ã¢â¬Å"I didn't bite or report it, it's just sad really that there are still people with so much anger at a football match." (Murrells, 2011) Ellington further said that he was inflicted with a remark of thief and targeted of monkey noises as reported in the paper. It is really surprising that such a celebrity player has to face such hostile remarks particularly, when Nathan is British born. It was simply not a club rivalry but something more than that. Ã¢â¬Å"Commercials represent only 5% of TV ads featuring ethnic minoritiesÃ¢â¬ (Sweney, 2011) With above title a report published in The Guardian in its issue of 21 April 2011. Subject of the report was that only 5% of the 35,000 ads were involved with the actors from black or other ethnic community. The report prepared by Clearcast mentioned that TV advertising is not proportionately representing blacks in view of the fact that Asian, Black and other ethnic minorities constitute about 13 percent of the UK population. Issue of ethnicity and belonging to black community still prevents one doing significant role in television commercials. Otherwise, how can one explain such a low level of participation in the ad business? It seems that it will take years before any racial discrimination is totally eliminated and participation of the other ethnic community sharply increases. The report further said that only 1130 ads were such that when any actor of ethnic minority group was given a main role. It means that commercials are not appropriately representing the diverse makeup of the UK. (Sweney, 2011) Ã¢â¬Å"Your tr ibe need to behave like proper English children: What BBC's Mishal Husain was told by shopper in supermarket.Ã¢â¬ (Jarvis, 2011) Above heading appeared in Daily Mail in its issue of 8th May, 2011. The children of BBC news reporter Mishal Husain were told to behave Ã¢â¬Ëlike proper English childrenÃ¢â¬â¢ when she visited a mall in Waitrose for shopping along with her three children and husband. Ms Husain is the upcoming star of BBC News. She is born and brought up in UK though her parents belong to Pakistan. Even BBC1Ã¢â¬â¢
Monday, November 18, 2019
Critical Thinking in Asking the Right Questions - Research Paper Example This is what will be attempted in the paper. The memo is written in response to the request made by director of operations regarding a leadership program for junior executives. The main issue discussed in the memo is the infeasibility of the proposed leadership program. The author argues that the proposed leadership program is not necessary because leaders are born and not made. Personal motivation of the direction of operations is questioned in the memo. The author concludes that a leadership program is not worth spending any money, and theories of leadership advocated by the director of operations are not in line with the culture of the company. Personal motivation behind the proposals is also highlighted in the conclusion. The reasons given in the memo for the infeasibility of the leadership program include selection issues, waste of money, Ã¢â¬Ëleaders are born not madeÃ¢â¬â¢ view, leadership traits, and personal motivations of Miss Forsythe. Selection issues will be raised when many people will request for leadership training and this is something the company cannot afford, according to the memo. The leadership training will be a waste of money because the company has already fared well without such training in the past, and therefore the training is a waste of money. The philosophy of born leaders is used as a reason against leadership programs. The author argues that leaders are born and not made, and therefore leadership training will not help employees. Trait theory of leadership is used to dispel the idea of leadership training program in the memo. Another very important reason given against the leadership program is that the personal motivation of Miss Forsythe is to get the position of VP Human Resource. Ambiguity refers to the double meaning of words and phrases (Bach, 2012). There is ambiguity when the author talks about the company being prosperous
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Impact of ICT on Country Development Executive Summary In this presentation we give advice to the Government of Malambia, a least developed country with a GDP per capita of US$480 and whose population of 39 million people majority of whom live in the rural areas. In the capital city, a monopoly network of fixed telephones under the direct control of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, has reached only 9% out of over 5 million. The rural areas have a teledensity of 0.25%. This advice includes how the country, which has recently discovered a huge source of oil in an undeveloped location 100 kilometres from the capital to a prosperous ICT driven country. This advice is laid out in National strategy for communications development in a chronological order beginning with justification to break monopoly and need for competition policy in Malambia. It shows the legal requirements and explains the privatised commercial environment. In the next chapter the proposed establishment of a national regulatory authority is discussed showing: types of regulatory bodies, the role of regulatory authority which will include among others; monitoring use of frequency spectrum, approval of communication equipment, Management frequency spectrum, protection of consumers, licensing and pricing of telecommunications operators, managing Internet protocol addresses and number portability and Universal access, frequency planning and policy, and Interconnectivity, Under the same chapter we discuss possible structure regulatory body, the needed rules and regulation, the Legal, requirements for the regulatory authority, its independence and structure of the regulatory authority. In the next chapter we examine rolling-out ICT coverage in Malambia and we look at, Internet service provision, Connectivity of broadband, Introduction of VOIP services, Oil and its impact on ICT development and strategies for ICT expansion strategies. In the next chapter we propose radical proposals for network interconnectivity with emphasis on; general agreements on interconnectivity, requirements for smooth interconnectivity, interconnection services, handling interconnectivity disputes and interconnection billing and charges In the next chapter, we examine the likely impact of new ICT services for a rapid economic growth in terms of new technologies, new services in transformation of socio-economy, converged ICT services and give examples. Finally we make recommendations which we believe will be useful and urge policy makers in Malambia to examine them and apply them. Preamble At the end of 2009, over 145 Regulatory Bodies were identified as being in place worldwide but Malambia currently doesnt have one. The Telecommunications industry in Malambia is still in monopolistic environment with the incumbent only telecommunication network offering fixed telephone services under the control of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. Luckily for the people of Malambia a huge source of oil was discovered recently in an undeveloped location 100 kilometres from the capital. One expert estimates this oil to produce revenue by 2015. The discussion in this paper is advice to the government of Malambia on how the country can transform itself from its current lowly developmental status with emphasis on telecommunications in its many forms. Specifically the paper will discuss the following: A national strategy for communications development A description of the proposed regulatory structure Suggestions as to how the coverage level of the population can achieve 65% by 2015 Radical proposals on network interconnection New services that will assist with transforming the countries economy It is suggested that the government and people of Malambia give the proposed changes support through the legislature and the different processes to achieve the transformation in telecommunications that will give the country the impetus to economic and social progress in the modern era of communications. National Strategy For Communications Development The Need To Break Monopoly The liberalisation is the opening of a monopolistic market to competitive provision of facilities and services removal of legal constraints which prevent communication service providers from entering markets and providing competitive services. Market liberalisation seeks to remove administrative and regulatory encumbrances that are related to business start-up, operation, trade, payment of taxes, closure and capital flows and profit repatriation by reducing the time and cost associated with various government and other requirements (Canto 2010: 1). Malambia needs to liberalise the telecommunications sector to make change to previous legal restrictions in telecommunications policy and come up with a new Communication laws, the creation of a Communication Regulatory Authority, the streamlining of national policy to international standards, and the preparation of policy for investment and business control. In most World Trade Organisation (WTO) member countries, liberalisation has come to mean the opening of a monopolistic market to competitive provision of facilities and services, whether the former monopoly operator is a state enterprise or a private enterprise (World Bank, 2006). Justification For A Competition Policy In Malambia A monopoly granted either to an individual or to a trading company has the same effect as a secret in trade or manufactures. The monopolists, by keeping the market constantly under-stocked, by never fully supplying the effectual demand, sell their commodities much above the natural price, and raise their emoluments, whether they consist in wages or profit, greatly above their natural rate. (Smith 1776) ICT reforms in Malambia should geared towards breaking the monopolistic government owned telecommunications company and allow many operators to compete for service delivery. Competition helps the country in many ways such as; competitive prices as consumers can choose the company of their choice, introduction of different products and services and innovations. As competition among service providers increases more customers are brought into the business bracket and therefore the government gets more taxes which are used to develop other sectors of the economy. With prospects for oil revenues many international telecommunications companies will come to Malambia only if the telecommunications environment is liberalised. Legal Requirements In short, competition policy in Malambia will encourage efficiency, optimum allocation of resources and technical advancement but this will need to be secured by law. First, the single most important factor to successful privatisation or liberalisation is clear government goals for the telecom sector and the adoption of policies to achieve those goals. Second, one critical issue for successful liberalisation is an open and transparent regulation. The WTO agreement requires that the regulator be independent of state operator, as this allows accountability, transparency and equity (Canto 2010: 5). Malambian government will therefore need to prepare an anti-monopoly Bill that will be discussed and forwarded to the Parliament to be signed as an act of Parliament and then by the president into law. Modern competition law has historically evolved on a country level to promote and maintain competition in markets principally within the territorial boundaries of nation-states. National competition law usually does not cover activity beyond territorial borders unless it has significant effects at nation-state level (Martyn 2006: 1).When protected by law most international companies feel secure to invest in a country and Malambia will not be exceptional. The Privatised Commercial Environment An environment in which it is possible to establish a company with a number of shareholders under a legal name and trade mark is referred to as a commercial environment. Privatisation is the transfer of assets or service delivery from the Government agencies to individuals or groups of individuals. The transfer be exclusive to the operation, management or total ownership of formerly government owned entities. Privatisation of Malambia ICT services will bring about numerous benefits such as better and diversified products and services, cheaper services as there will not be price fixing, innovations in products and service delivery in order for companies to get or retain clients, wider coverage as competing firms search for clients and of course more revenues to the government in terms of taxes. A privatised environment calls for private investors to invest their capital in companies as companies need to use the capital to upgrade their hardware, invest in new technologies and acquire the essentials for the companies to because there are no government subsidies to use. Private investors want to make sure there will be returns on their investments and will make sure there is fair-play, a level playing field and security for their investments. Fair-play among the different operators is ensured by a regulatory body that monitors and evaluates how the operators follow and abide by the rules, regulations and laws in place. Proposed Establishment Of Malambia Regulatory Authority In order to enforce the application and use of the communication laws, rules and regulations in the liberalised market, attract regional and international investors and protect consumers from cartels and overpricing through collusion in ICT sector in Malambia, there is need to set up an Independent Communications Regulatory Authority to ensure a smooth transition from a single government operator to multi-operators in the ICT sector. Malambia should use the regulatory body to: create and deliver fair, accessible, faster and modern service to consumers; allow access to a wide range of communications services; attract regional/international investors; put in place reasonable prices and quality of communication services; protect consumers from high tariffs; allow smooth coexistence of different operators; ensure the independence for policy-makers and operators. Types Of Regulatory Bodies There are different types of regulatory bodies: a single-sector regulator, a converged institutional design, a multi-sector regulatory authority likes the Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Agency (RURA) and a non specific telecommunications regulatory authority (ICT regulation toolkit 2010): It is recommended that converged institutional design which refers to regulatory bodies that oversee a range of services which include telecommunications, information and communications technologies and broadcasting, will be best suitable for Malambia considering the fact that it will be changing from a one operator monopoly type of market, bearing in mind the availability of resources especially human resources. The Role Of Regulatory Authority In Malambia In discussing the role of the regulatory body in Malambia emphasis is placed on its role in the privatised and liberalised telecommunication sector. Other sector may be considered by the policy makers. The regulatory body should have the following policy principles: a. Always make consultations with all stakeholders and evaluate the possible impact of their action prior to imposing regulations actors in the sectors. b. Make research on markets always and remain abreast with technological understanding. c. Avoid intervention, but do so promptly, effectively and firmly when required. d. Ensure interventions that are proportionate, consistent, transparent, accountable and which is based on evidence when investigating and implementing the resolutions. e. Where specific statutory duty to work calls for it, Intervene for a public policy and goal which cannot be achieved by markets. f. With stated policy objectives, regulate and articulate publicly discussed annual plan. g. In regulatory matters, seek less intrusion to attain its stated policy objectives. Monitoring Use Of Frequency Spectrum This refers to the support and supervision of the operation of communication networks and stations according to the legislation. This will allow economical and sustainable provision of communication services to their customers by identifying transmitter, monitor compliance with regulations and whether the transmission meet the specified technical requirements. This will prevent unlicensed and defective transmitters from interfering with legally permitted transmitters. Approval Of Communication Equipment The Regulatory Authority ensures that all communication equipment entering the country conform to acceptable national, regional and international standards to ensure the quality and safety of users. It will the ensure quality of services provided by operators, safety and compatibility among the different users. In this regard the regulatory authority will ensure that the quality Malambians is above reproach and is acceptable. Management Frequency Spectrum There is need to set up a clear policy on frequency spectrum management to ensure a rational, efficient and economic use of frequencies. This should be by virtue of existing legal and regulatory framework that governs ICT in the country and applied by the Regulatory Authority. The frequency spectrum may cover three sections which are frequency assignment, frequency spectrum monitoring and frequency spectrum enforcement. Protection Of Consumers Communication licenses include conditions that protect the consumers such as billing practices, dispute resolution, consumer complaint mechanisms, price regulation, emergency services, and mandatory services to consumers and limitations of liability for service defaults. The Regulatory Authority should make and publicise a code of conduct for service providers showing the required behaviour, duties and responsibilities in ICT sector. Consumers should be protected from excessive prices, poor service delivery and unreliable service provision such as poor lines or intermittent telephone lines. Licensing And Pricing Of Telecommunications Operators The legal framework should empower the Regulatory Authority to receive and process applications for communication licenses, monitor the pricing, arbitrate disputes and interconnectivity between the different communications providers, if requirements are met. Operators licenses are normally issued through open tender to allow equal opportunities to the bidders and get the best offers from operators in the communication service providers. Internet Protocol Addresses And Number Portability Regulatory Authorities are responsible for developing national numbering plans in conformity with international standards bearing in mind the need to synchronise with regional and international norms. Regulatory Authority in Malambia shall set these numbers in tandem with the recommendations of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), telephone numbering plan and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The Regulator will put in place the numbering system bearing mind the international standards and regional norms. The Regulator will also set requirements and registrars which must be met an entity to be licensed for IP address. Universal Access Universal accessrefers to the ability of all people to have equal opportunity and access to a service or product from which they can benefit, regardless of their social class, ethnicity, ancestry or physical disabilities. There should be a clause in each operators license obliging them not to discriminate certain areas because they are remote, poor or inaccessible and the regulator should monitor their implementation by ensure ICT services are spread according to the universal access principles in order to connect remote area so that each all people of can be provided with the benefits. The Regulatory Authority should also manage the Universal Access Funds and collect revenue from various sources, which targeted subsidies to implement universal programs. These funds shall be administered independently. Frequency Planning And Policy Regulatory Authority for an efficient development of implementation policies and plans relating to should plan and put in place policies for the spectrum utilisation. It is possible to use frequencies generate incomes and jobs with proper planning and management. Proposal Of Regulatory Structure In Malambia A regulatory Authority should be established in Malambia to ensure that ICT sector is regulated and that consumers are protected from unfair and get the service they pay for. There needs to be in place an affective Regulatory Authority to ensure credibility to ensure continued entry into the market and compliance with and enforcement of existing regulations. The authority shall issue Individual licenses delivery, monitor compliance to the rules and regulations, avoid cartels and anticompetitive tendencies on part of providers, ensure quality of service and ensure users are not cheated through high charges above the market prices. Putting In Rules And Regulation As indicated in the preamble, the current single fixed-line provider in Malambia is a government Institution under the ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. The current law cannot serve the commercial environment envisaged in the country. There is need to change the law and consequently, a regulatory authority and its independence. This calls for the following: making new policies and regulations that regulate network operation, frequency, numbers, IP addresses, liaise with regional and international organisations and manage disputes. Legal Framework Countries develop and adopt different laws and legal system depending on the local situations and the interests of those that make laws; the development of the Malambia regulatory framework, rules, laws, and regulations that identify contractual obligations and property rights of government and stakeholders must be developed basing on the local conditions while adopting best international norms and values. Requirements For The Regulatory Authority The Regulatory Authority in Malambia should incorporate International standards used and applied throughout the world. This will require the Regulatory Authority should ensure its independence, predictability, transparency, accountability, and capacity. Independence Of The Regulatory Authority The Regulatory Authority should be separate and independent in operation and strategic terms from the government agencies and the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications so that it can carry out its duties without undue influence from the government control. This will give operators and the public confidence in the neutrality of its decisions and will attract investors. Structure Of The Regulatory Authority Under the supervision of the Director General, the Regulatory body should have the department shown below: Ã Spectrum and International Department Ã Legal Affairs Ã Licensing E-Commerce Ã Technology Development Department Ã Regulatory Affairs Ã Finance Ã Support Services Ã Corporate Communications Rolling-Out Ict Coverage This chapter examines the possibility of widen the coverage of ICT throughout Malambia. It is expected that with increased revenue from the discovered oil more investment opportunities will attract even more investors. But with or without oil the country should start planning for the rollout through private investments. There is no doubt that ICT development is an engine in increasing the awareness of nationals and their role in development, education sector and competitiveness. The growth in the use of ICT in society should benefit the country in many forms; commerce and banking through e-banking and e-commerce, faster and cheap communication, through e-education, e-health and telemedicine. Internet Service Provision The role of the Internet in increasing the efficiency of economies in different countries as well as fastening and easing communication and thereby raising countries economies and consequently GDP cannot be overemphasised. Internet provision as a solution in developing and reaching undeveloped or underdeveloped areas has been successful in many poor countries including while increasing revenues both at national and individual levels among the population and Malambia should be no exception. Issuing licences to multi-operator Internet Services Providers (ISP) in Malambia will reduce the price of connectivity while promoting competition among players. Connectivity Of Broadband Leased line prices are high in many developing countries which operate under monopolistic single provider marketplaces. The Internet broadband connectivity and wireless mobile telephone reduce the cost of communication. The aim should be to increase Internet penetration, promote investment in wireless connectivity, and urge landline operators to deliver reliable services through leased lines and improve the quality of overall services provided. Introduction Of VoIP Services The Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) greatly reduces the cost of telephone calls and many operators around the world are using this to carry their international traffics. The Regulatory Authority will decide whether to licence this medium of communication bearing in mind the views of telephone operators as the use of VoIP may impact their profitability. The Regulator shall then decide how the two media can coexist and whether will be forfeited at the expense of the other. The decision of the Regulator should be independent from any external influence whether government or otherwise. Oil And Its Impact On Ict Development According to an expert from Texas, in the USA, the discovered oil reserves in Malambia, Ã¢â¬Ëwill produce revenues by 2015Ã¢â¬ . Bearing in mind that the current Malambian GDP per capita is US$480, there is possibility that peoples incomes will rise while the government revenues will increase multi-fold. This will avail the resources needed resources to put in place the necessary infrastructure while increasing peoples disposable incomes through job creation and other horizontal synergies related to the oil industry and therefore their ability to demand and pay for services. Oil has many products such as: aviation fuels, petrol, kerosene, diesel, LPG, lubricating oils and bitumen. All these products will be used for different purpose to enhance the living standards, purchasing power, and lifestyle of Malambians hence the need to for improved quality of service in ICT. With a population 39 million whose incomes and the standard of living are improved the purchasing power will be a magnet to international investors in the ICT sector. Ict Expansion Strategies The expansion of ICT services in a liberalised economy is the responsibility of service providers, who according to the terms of licences they bided for, follow the clause stipulating spreading their services to cover the entire nation without overlooking areas because of the geography, remoteness or development. The Regulatory Authority will ensure that those terms are followed and no areas of the country are excluded. This will ensure that Malambians of all walks can access the ICT services. To attain the expansion of ICT coverage in Malambia there will be need for train of people to help others in the use of the different ICT applications. For example groups of people should be trained to help the majority of Malambians who cannot access and use the internet in Ã¢â¬Å"Internet CafesÃ¢â¬ . Universal access, for instance using the Universal Access Fund, should be used to fund and make improvements in service delivery in Malambia particularly areas that are under serviced or people are illiterate to train peers who will in turn train others. Radical Proposals For Network Interconnectivity Introduction The Regulatory Authority in Malambia will define the rules of interconnection and also establish the rules by which the former monopolist interacts with the other new operators. Where there is fair-play Malambia will attract investors. The Regulator must allow the new ICT Operators to recover their investments through a pre-determined exclusive period. General Agreements On Interconnectivity The agreement is be based on what type of service is provided by providers namely fixed to fixed phone network, mobile to mobile phone network, fixed to mobile phone network, mobile to fixed phone network, and ISP to mobile or fixed phone network. It is possible for two or more networks to exchange traffic and inputs in legally referred to as interconnectivity and this should be facilitated by law. The Regulatory Authority put in place principles of connectivity and makes them known. Agreement among operators regarding interconnectivity should be forwarded to Regulatory Authority together with interconnection fees. The Regulator will then monitor the implementation, competition and intervene when necessary. Interconnection is non-discriminatory and an operator should not enter into agreement with another operator for interconnection fees different from the ones published by the regulatory authority. Whereas monitoring domestic interconnectivity within the country is easy and beneficial to the service providers, the regulatory body should find modalities for easing international interconnectivity between Malambia and other countries networks for the Malambians who call or receive international calls. This may be achieved by reaching agreements and understandings with regulatory bodies of other countries or using the WTO regulations. Requirements For Smooth Interconnectivity Connectivity is based on the principles transparency and non-discrimination; Agreement on interconnectivity should involve willing parties; The acceptable standard of quality of networks should be agreed on; Adequate capacity for interconnectivity should be provided by operators; The cost of interconnectivity should be agreed on prior to interconnecting; Technical matters and international standards on interconnectivity between Network providers should be agreed on; Dispute between and among interconnected parties should be resolved by Regulator. Interconnection Services National and International Call Termination; also known as voice termination, refers to the handing off or routing of telephone calls from one telephone company, also known as a carrier or provider, to another. The terminating point is the called party or end point. The originating point is the calling party who initiates the call. National and International Call Transit/ Roaming; Indirect Access Services; Refers to the access that a subscriber whose service is directly connected to the network of one carrier may have to the services provided by another carrier or service provider (Ovum 2003) Source : Byung W. Kim, Chang Y. Choo, Seong H. Seol (n. d.) Economic Effects of Indirect Access Regime in the Mobile Telecommunicaion Market [online] available from [1 April 2010] Other services the Regulatory Authority must take care in interconnectivity are: Physical Interconnection; Access to the Information on the Operator and Directory Enquiries; Access to Emergency Services; Additional services (Premium Rate and Free Phone services); Co-location. Handling Interconnectivity Disputes The Regulatory Authority should resolve disputes among operators through negotiations and application of the standards and laws. There should be room for negotiations before cases are taken to the Regulatory Authority. Operators should not abuse consumer rights and the Regulator should apply the law where it occurs. Parties that are not happy with resolutions of the Regulatory body may appeal to the courts of law. Interconnection Billing And Charges Interconnectivity bills and charges may be done several ways such as: Parties can make their own reconciliation, Bills may be exchanged within an agreed period of time at the end of a billing period ; Exchanging invoices after reconciliation; Interconnectivity agreements should indicate the currency of payment whether local currency or international; Payment agreements should stipulate the payment after receipt of invoices. It common practice that providers pay a certain amount amongst themselves for calls. Impact Of New Ict Services For A Rapid Economic Growth Introduction When innovative technologies, ICT services and improved technologies are initiated in Malambia, the national economy will be enhanced. Synergies will be created with these technologies and services which will improve the socio-economic wellbeing of Malambians. This is likely to improve the living standards, health, commerce, fiscal state of the government and investment climate in the country. New Technologies With new technology in the countrys communication networks living conditions will be improved. Some of those technologies are listed as following: a. Multimedia applications such as WiMAX will be introduce in Malambia and their use will impact the different spheres of Malambians. b. Improvement of ICTs in Malambia will lead to provision high speed and quality, the multimedia audio and video and information streaming through technologies like WiBRO. c. Subscription to Pay per view Television (PTV) whether analogue or digital cable and satellite based TV services and digital terrestrial methods will ease access to information. Other modern technologies, which may bring rapid development and transformation, in Malambia, are: NGNs, W-CDMA, ADSL, GSM 1900, HC-SDMA, UMTS, CDMA, EV-DO and many others. New Services In Transformation Of Socio-Economy In Malambia The ICTs reforms in Malambia should be the socio-economic development and transformation. There is relationship between access to telecommunication and per capita GDP. With better communication Malambians will trade and get informed. All ICT services in Malambia will transform the socio-economic transformation of the people while giving confidence to international investors. This makes it imperative to the reform of ICTs in the country. Underdeveloped as the country is, Malambia needs to introduce different services to better its economy. Where such services have been introduced sustainable development been realised. The services that should be the acquisitions of Internet domains and sites, ICT Research and technological development, development and design in semiconductor, e-democracy, e-learning, e-government, telemedicine, e-procurement, e-commerce, video conferencing. There are many benefits to the people of Rwanlawi from the use mobile phones technology such as: Business will increase and become cheaper with the use mobile phones and use of SMS to make orders for products and service as sellers and buyers will be in touch at any time of the day. It will be important in Telemedicine, the Doctors can check on the status of the patients where they m
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The O'Reilly Factor Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I choose the OÃ¢â¬â¢Reilly Factor because itÃ¢â¬â¢s about the only book that appealed to me. As well as the one the few narrators I could listen to for 5 hours. Besides the only other television shows I watch are reruns of the SimpsonÃ¢â¬â¢s and Senfied. So the OÃ¢â¬â¢Reilly factor seemed like a logical choice for me. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The book is basically Bill OÃ¢â¬â¢ReillyÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint on just about everything such as politics, raising children, and taken responsibility for your own actions. Personally I really liked the book but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s just me I would not recommend to anyone who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like Fox News Channel. The book incorporates a lot of his television show. In a lot of ways it was long a really long episode of the Ã¢â¬Å"FactorÃ¢â¬ . Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the book Bill talks a lot of about his childhood and how he was raised in working class family in New York. The friendships he has maintained since his childhood as well as what it takes to be a good friend in his mind. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The book starts out with him talking about being a high school teacher and when he was in college at Boston University looking across the river at MIT and Harvard and then given a chance to go back to get his masters at Harvard and then studying his now new counterparts. Growing up in a working class family his was not accustom to the Harvard way of life or thinking. What he means by that is since he did not come from a wealthy family when he graduated college he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have his fathers friends lining up to interview him. Basically he has always had to work to get where he is today. And that holds true today if you are born into any class besides the wealthy upper class you have to work for everything and speak up for yourself if necessary. Which in the book Bill mentions how his mouth has gotten him into some trouble; for insistence when he first became a journalist he had four jobs in five years mainly because he would speak up when something was done tha t wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t right. Trying to make right wrongs. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The first part of the book is a lot about the classes that exist in America. Why they exist for example the rich upper class usually the politicians in America donÃ¢â¬â¢t seat around at the country club wondering how to get drugs out of the ghetto.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Creative Piece for as Level English Literature Coursework Comparing Two Film Adaptations of Ã¢â¬ËHamletÃ¢â¬â¢ Essay
Kenneth Branagh takes Hamlet from play to screen in an intense, full-length adaptation and he got it right! Gregory Doran also takes a whack at bringing Hamlet from the stage to the screen but with a more modern-day interpretation. Branagh restores HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest scenes and brings out the most in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s awe-inspiring revenge-tragedy plot; in both performance and direction, Branagh displays energy and cogency. The language has the upmost clarity and makes the film feel accessible and comprehensible for a range of viewers. BranaghÃ¢â¬â¢s pragmatic approach, which includes short illustrative Ã¢â¬ËflashbacksÃ¢â¬â¢, work as a perfectly credible cinematic device that helps the audience to understand the complex scenarios. Branagh tends to rant on and shout throughout the film, especially in his soliloquys, but to the audience it could feel commanding and passionate and so it creates quite an impressive effect. The musical scores are generally helpful, although on occasions they donÃ¢â¬â¢t quite fit in with the mood, for example in Act 4, Scene 4, during HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, the music just made it more humorous rather than serious and dramatic, honestly it sounded more like a cheesy American speech with a flag in the background! At the start of the film, the setting is a bit weak, with the shaking of the earth and the appearance of the ghost proving to be a poor attempt at special effects! However the film then gets flooded with colour and majestically inviting grand halls and rooms which are truly beautiful. The BBCÃ¢â¬â¢s adaptation of Hamlet (2009), takes a modern-day approach; from the start it is clear that this adaptation is modern dress, Hamlet wears jeans and a T-shirt and he kills Polonius with a handgun, as well as there being Helicopters and women in military roles. Some dialogue and scenes were Ã¢â¬ËtrimmedÃ¢â¬â¢ and adapted to suit viewers of the modern day and unlike the exuberant, bravura styling of BranaghÃ¢â¬â¢s version, Doran has favoured a more refined minimalist dramatization. Whilst the production design is theatrical, Doran directs the camera in a manner that is more typical of television; he uses a few cinematic flourishes and can reach angles that would be impossible on the stage. The use of modern CCTV may enforce the element of surveillance but their clumsy, intrusive functioning is more distractive rather than innovative. It is interesting however how Doran puts a camera in HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s hands to highlight that characterÃ¢â¬â¢s observations of others. Onstage, Tennant made eye-contact with the audience, bringingÃ viewers into the plot and the tense impression of the play; this quality was also apparent in the film where Tennant looks directly into the camera, enhancing the meaning behind the text whilst recreating the theatrical intimacy. Branagh doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t stray from the original text in his exciting adaptation of Hamlet and the cast, acting, set and overall production was brilliant and can really captivate viewers. However despite the fact the former Doctor Who star tackled his role with an excellent fierceness, DoranÃ¢â¬â¢s modern-day approach was nowhere near as dynamic as BranaghÃ¢â¬â¢s performance.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
The recipe for Pepsi (the soft drink), was first developed in the 1880s by a pharmacist and industrialist from New Bern, North Carolina, named Caleb Bradham Ã¢â¬â who called it Ã¢â¬Å"Pepsi-ColaÃ¢â¬ in 1898. As the cola developed in popularity, he created the Pepsi-Cola Company in 1902 and registered a patent for his recipe in 1903.  The Pepsi-Cola Company was first incorporated in the state of Delaware in 1919. In the early 1960s the company product line expanded with the creation of Diet Pepsi and purchase of Mountain Dew.Separately, the Frito Company and H. W. Lay & Company Ã¢â¬â two American potato and corn chip snack manufacturers Ã¢â¬â began working together in 1945 with a licensing agreement allowing H. W. Lay to distribute Fritos in the Southeastern United States. The companies merged to become Frito-Lay, Inc. in 1961.  In 1965, the Pepsi-Cola Company merged with Frito-Lay, Inc. to become PepsiCo, Inc. , the company it is known as at present. At the time of its foundation, PepsiCo was incorporated in the state of Delaware and headquartered in Manhattan, New York.The company's headquarters were relocated to its still-current location of Purchase, New York in 1970, and in 1986 PepsiCo was reincorporated in the state of North Carolina.  PepsiCo was the first company to stamp expiration dates, starting in March 1994. PepsiCo Inc. is an American multinational food and beverage corporation headquartered in Purchase, New York, United States, with interests in the manufacturing, marketing and distribution of grain-based snack foods, beverages, and other products. PepsiCo was formed in 1965 with the merger of the Pepsi-Cola Company and Frito-Lay, Inc.PepsiCo has since expanded from its namesake product Pepsi to a broader range of food and beverage brands, the largest of which include an acquisition of Tropicana in 1998 and a merger with Quaker Oats in 2001Ã¢â¬âwhich added the Gatorade brand to its portfolio. Competition The Coca-Cola C ompany has historically been considered PepsiCo's primary competitor in the beverage market, and in December 2005, PepsiCo surpassed The Coca-Cola Company in market value for the first time in 112 years since both companies began to compete. In 2009, the Coca-Cola Company eld a higher market share in carbonated soft drink sales within the U. S.  In the same year, PepsiCo maintained a higher share of the U. S. refreshment beverage market, however, reflecting the differences in product lines between the two companies.  As a result of mergers, acquisitions and partnerships pursued by PepsiCo in the 1990s and 2000s, its business has shifted to include a broader product base, including foods, snacks and beverages. The majority of PepsiCo's revenues no longer come from the production and sale of carbonated soft drinks. 29] Beverages accounted for less than 50 percent of its total revenue in 2009. In the same year, slightly more than 60 percent of PepsiCo's beverage sales came from its primary non-carbonated brands, namely Gatorade and Tropicana.  PepsiCo's Frito-Lay and Quaker Oats brands hold a significant share of the U. S. snack food market, accounting for approximately 39 percent of U. S. snack food sales in 2009.  One of PepsiCo's primary competitors in the snack food market overall is Kraft Foods, which in the same year held 11 percent of the U.S. snack market share. As of 2009, 21 PepsiCo brands met that mark: Pepsi-Cola, Mountain Dew, Lay's, Gatorade, Tropicana, 7Up, Doritos, Lipton Teas, Quaker Foods, Cheetos, Mirinda, Ruffles, Aquafina, Pepsi Max, Tostitos, Sierra Mist, Fritos, and Walker's` PepsiCo in India Various products in Indian Market are Pepsi Cola, Mirinda, 7up, mountain dew, diet 7up, diet pepsi, lays, kurkure, aquafina, pepsi twist and Tropicana juices. Product in Spot light Ã¢â¬â Pepsi Cola Swot Analysis Of PepsiSwot analysis is based on thorough analysis of business (corporation, Product Category Competition, Customers a nd products) identifies and evaluates the internal strengths and weaknesses of the company well as its external threats and oppurtunities. The marketing mix is driven by the results of swot analysis. Strengths * Company has a very established name and good reputation * As the target customers of pepsi is young generation, so pepsi has mostly brand loyal customers. * Most of the customers are satisfied with the price of pepsi. * Pepsi spends a lot of budget on its advertising. Pepsi has a very vast distribution channel and it is easily available everywhere. * Pepsi offers many discount schemes for customers time to time. * Pepsi Cola is sponsoring sports, musical concerts etc. * Stylish packaging like in my can. * Since Pepsi is has youth Icons of India as its Brand Ambassadors (e. g. Sachin Tandulkar, Ranbir Kapoor, MS Dhoni etc. ) which is also a strong point for the company. Weakness * Pepsi targets only young customers in their promotion. * Pepsi tin pack is not available in far off rural areas. * Like Coca Cola no Diet Pepsi is available to attract customers having low sugar preference.Opportunities * Company may start entering rural areas also. * Increased interests of people in musical groups, cultural shows and sports has provided an opportunity for pepsi to increase its sales through them. Competitors * The main competitor of company is Coca Cola. Coke has started its advertisements more effectively and it is a very strong threat for pepsi. * Cola drinks are not good for health, so awareness level of people are increasing, which is a big threat to company. How Internal and External factors affecting the strategies Marketer needs to be the good at building relationships with customer.Others in company and external links. To do this effectively they must understand the major environmental forces that surrounds all these relationships company environment consist of forces outside the marketing that effects marketing management. Ability to maintain or buil d successful relations with target customers. Every company should know the vital importance of constantly watching or adapting to the changing environment . as the world moving fast today no one can be the certain about the future. The environment continues the change rapidly.By carefully studying the environment, marketers can adapt their strategies to meet new marketplaces challenges and opportunity some of the external or internal environmental factors that affect the market trend of the companies are as following: EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT: The macro environment consists of larger societal factors that affect the microenvironment. The external factors are not under the control of marketers. They can just observe them and make strategies in light of these factors. Some of these factors are: Demographic Factors * Age: The requirements of different age groups are different.Pepsi shoul target that customer group that consumes it the most and make promotional strategies according to thei r behavior. So their main target is young generation. * Education: A company has to make promotional strategies according to the customer level. If the percentage of education is higher in a country; then through advertisements people can me made well aware of their product and can convey their messages easily. Promotion and education has a direct relationship. * Population Distribution: It means how much people live in urban and rural areas.Pepsi is focusing more on urban areas as people there are more inclined towards urban areas as compared to rural areas where people prefer drinking lassi and desi drinks. Economic Factors: * Income and Income per capita: If the income or per capita income of people increases, it will have a positive effect on the people of pepsi. * Inflation: If the country faces inflationary trend in market, the price of pepsi will ultimately increase, which will lower its demand. * Fiscal policy: If the heavy price is levied on pepsi, its price will increase w hich will have negative effect on consumption. Monetary policy is made to restrict or increase the flow of money in market. If the policies are made to restrict the flow of money in market, the inflation can be controlled, which ultimately increase the consumption of pepsi. Natural/Physical Factors * Region: India is divided into different geographical regions. Marketing and sale of pepsi is different in different geographical regions. In hot areas its demand is more. * City siza: The cities which are densely populated, the consumption of pepsi is more. * Climate: Pepsi is more suitable for humid or hot weathered conditions. It is the source of efreshment when the person is thirsty due to hot weather. * Infrastructure: Roads are the basic need for transportation of pepsi from one place to another. Pepsi cannot open factories in any city as it has to transport to other cities where pepsi is demanded. Electricity is the basic necessity for production of any product. Constant load shed ding slows down the process of production, which can lower market share. Technological Factors * Research and Development: Through research and development, quality of product can be improved or better techniques or machinery can be developed which can increase the production.When technology is advance the supply of product increase, hence the company experience growth in business. Political and Legal Factors: * Political stability: Whenever the government iss considered to be stable, the business will flourish, if there is political stability in the country the policies and strategies made by pepsi can be consistent to be implemented. Foreign Countries are also keen to invest in thoe countries which are politically stable where they have no fear of decline in their market share or shutdown due to sudden change of government. Mixed Economy: In mixed economy, government and private sector both play their role in developing the economy of the country. Investment by the foreign country like pepsi is more likely to flourish in mixed economy. * Laws Formulation: The government has given copy rights to Pepsi so that another company cannot sell their products by the name of pepsi. The countries where laws are formulated, the strategies and activities of the company are different. * Social responsibility: Pepsi`s social responsibility is to provide its customer which clean and hygienic product.So to do this, they have increased the use of disposal bottles. Social and cultural factors * Psychographic: It is a combionation of demographic and psychological factors. Psychological attributes mean how you perceive things. The company will focus on the behavior of customers and make different changes in their product quantity or quality and in promoting their product so they can attract the customers. Keeping in view the behavior of different customers is not alike, they have to make their marketing strategies in accordance with their requirements so that they are convinced to buy their product. Religious : Religious factors can influence the market sales of pepsi as it happened in 2003, when US led attack on Iraq, wide sections of society in Pakistan have banned American multinational coke and pepsi. * Social Status: Pepsi is a well renowned brand. People who are brand conscious will not drink beverages of lesser known brands such as Royal Crown cola. They will try to show their status by drinking pepsi which is known to all as quality drink. * Media: It is a very important factor for marketing. Media these days is a very affective way of inspiring people to buy a specific product.A good promotion can boost up sales to a great extent. Micro or Internal Factors * Customers: There are 3 types of customers 1. Consumer 2. Business 3. Government Pepsi`s main focus is the consumers which are the end users. Pepsi has to make its marketing strategies keeping in view the consumer buying behavior. To forecast the behavior of consumer is a business problem. The physical aspect of consumer can be satisfied but it is difficult to satisfy the consumer psychologically. Consumer buying behavior is affected by the certain factors like cultural factors, social factors and psychological factors.So the producer should keep these factors in mind while promoting their product so that they can acquire the customers and increase their market share. There are different consumers in the society whose behavior is not the same. Every consumer has a different perception of different products. Some consumers are impressed by one quality of the product which may be in the view of other consumers may not that impressive. So to deal with the different consumers in a society, one should know about the consumer buying behavior process which may help in making a true picture of the product in the mind of consumers. Suppliers He is the person who provides the raw materials to the producers and the sellers. Supplie form an important link in the company`s overall cus tomer value delivery system. They provide the resources needed by the company to produce its goods and services. PepsiCo International provides raw material to Pepsi franchise in India. Supplier problem can seriously affect marketing. Marketing manager must watch supply availability i. e. supply shortage or delay. The company should monitor the price trends of their key inputs. Rising supply cost may force price increase that can harm the company`s sale volume. Competitors He is the person who is selling the same type of product in the market. The marketing concept states that to be successful a company must provide greater customer value and satisfaction than its competitor do. Pepsi has a tough competition with coca cola and it faces a little competition with local producers like Rc Cola, Alfa etc. The local producers hardly affect the sale of pepsi in the market. * Market Intermediaries/ Distributers Distributers maintain the image of the product and sale in the market. If items are not properly placed by the distributer, it will disperse the market.Channels of Distribution The pepsi uses the following two channels for the distribution of their products: Intensive Distribution: Pepsi Co follows anintensive distribution strategy. To support their ubiquitous feature they want to place theirproduct in as many outlets as possible. ? Increases market coverage Distributors: 3 to 5 % is the profit marginRetailers: 10 % to 16 % is the profit margin DISTRIBUTORS Jain distributors -Munirka, New DelhiManagesbuffer for 10 days anduses TALLY and EXCEL software SS drinks Private Limited WHOLESALERS EKTA Wholesalers Private LimitedManagesbuffer for 2-3 days anduses EXCEL oftware RETAIL AmitCorner, KatwariaSarai Transportation cost, vehicle cost at each stage is borne by intermediaries. CHANNEL MANAGEMENT PepsiCo has lot of control over the channel In case of Pepsi to Authorised distributor to retailshops (defined territory of distributor. Pepsi assigns a particular territ ory to the distributor under an agreement. No intervention into other`s territory withour company`s knowledge. Retailers accountable to the authorized distributors. Suggestions Install vending machines for direct distribution Financial support to franchises.